Yr Oraclau Bywiol - Testament Newydd 1842 (John Williams) (CJW)

Cymraeg [Welsh, Galés]

Read Version: Yr Oraclau Bywiol - Testament Newydd 1842 (John Williams)

John Williams

Ganwyd John Williams ger Glanwydden, ger Llandudno, yn 1806. Astudiodd yn ysgol Robert Watkin Lloyd yn Tamworth, i'w baratoi i fynd i Rydychen. Arhosodd yn Rhydychen am naw mis yn unig, cyn mynd yn ôl adre. Cafodd ei fedyddio yn 1828, a'i ordeinio yn weinidog gyda'r Bedyddwyr yn 1834. Bu'n gweinidogaethu yn Llansilin a Moelfre hyd 1836, yna Rhosllanerchrugog a Brymbo hyd 1841, a'r Drenewydd. Yn 1853 aeth yn ôl i Rosllanerchrugog a Penycae. Yno y bu'n gweinidogaethu hyd ei farwolaeth yn 1856 yn 50 oed. Cafodd ei gladdu ger capel Bedyddwyr Salem, Pen-y-cae, ger Rhosllanerchrugog, lle gellir gweld ei garreg fedd.

Yr Oraclau Bywiol

Yn y 1800au ychydig iawn o gyfieithiadau amrywiol oʼr Beibl oedd ar gael. Daeth Testament Newydd Saesneg allan yn 1826 dan yr enw The Living Oracles ac roedd yn boblogaidd iawn ymhlith Bedyddwyr. Roedd y fersiwn Saesneg hwn yn cyfuno cyfieithiadau o wahanol lyfrau gan George Campbell a James MacKnight, oedd yn weinidogion Eglwys yr Alban, a chan Philip Doddridge, Annibynwr Saesneg – y tri wedi cyfieithu rhai llyfrau o'r Groeg gwreiddiol. Yna cafodd y casgliad hwn ei olygu gan Alexander Campbell, aʼi gyhoeddi yn Virginia yn 1826. Un peth oedd yn nodweddu y fersiwn hwn oedd fod y geiriau Saesneg traddodiadol “church” a “baptise” wedi eu newid i “congregation” ac “immerse”.

Yn 1838 dechreuodd y Parch John Williams, gweinidog Bedyddwyr yn Rhosllanerchrugog, a adwaenid fel Philologus, gyfieithu The Living Oracles o'r Saesneg i'r Gymraeg gan gyfeirio at y Groeg. Yr enw ar gyfieithiad John Williams oedd Yr Oraclau Bywiol, neu Ysgrifeniadau Cysegrlan Apostolion ac Efengylwyr Iesu Grist, a elwir y Testament Newydd. Cyhoeddwyd hwn gyntaf yn 1842. Cafwyd argraffiad newydd yn 1881, oedd yn ychwanegu rhifau adnodau, gyda chyflwyniad gan y Parch Owen Davies o Gaernarfon. Ailargraffwyd y fersiwn hwn ddiwethaf yn 1887. Mae Owen Davies yn honni i John Williams ddechrau cyfieithu o'r Saesneg ond yna newid i gyfieithu o'r Groeg. Mae ei drefn aʼi arddull yn sicr yn dilyn y fersiwn Saesneg, ac hyd at Lyfr yr Actau maeʼn aml yn cyfeirio at y geiriau yn y fersiwn Saesneg. Mae'r cyfieithiad yn defnyddio'r geiriau Cymraeg “cynnulleidfa” yn lle “eglwys” a “trochi” yn lle “bedyddio”. Mewn rhai mannau mae'r testun Cymraeg yn gwyro rywfaint oddi wrth eiriad y fersiwn Saesneg, lle credai John Williams y byddai cyfieithiad gwahanol i'r Gymraeg yn well. Maeʼr cyfieithiad yn bwysig am mai hwn oedd y Testament Newydd cyntaf yn y Gymraeg ers 1620. Roedd yn boblogaidd ymhlith y Bedyddwyr. Mae rhai pobl yn ei ystyried fel cyfieithiad oʼr Saesneg, tra mae eraill yn honni ei fod yn gyfieithiad oʼr Groeg. Maeʼn debyg fod y gwirionedd yn gorwedd rywle rhwng y ddau honiad.

Fersiwn Digidol

Cafodd y fersiwn digidol ei baratoi gan Gymdeithas y Beibl gyda help MissionAssist yn 2021.

English:

John Williams

John Williams was born near Glanwydden, near Llandudno, in 1806. He studied at Robert Watkin Lloydʼs school at Tamworth, to be prepared for Oxford. He only stayed at Oxford for nine months, and then returned home. He was baptised in 1828. He was ordained as a Baptist minister in 1834 and then served as a Baptist minister of Llansilin and Moelfre until 1836, then at Rhosllanerchrugog and Brymbo until 1841, Newtown. In 1853 he returned to Rhosllanerchrugog and Penycae. He remained there until he died in 1856 aged 50. He as buried by Salem Welsh Baptist chapel in Pen-y-cae, near Rhosllanerchrugog, where there is a tombstone for him.

Yr Oraclau Bywiol

In the 1800s there were very few alternative Bible translations available. A new English New Testament came out in 1826 called in English The Living Oracles which was popular amongst Baptists. This English edition combined translations of different books by the Church of Scotland ministers George Campbell and James MacKnight and by the English Congregationalist Philip Doddridge, who had each translated some books from the original Greek. This collection was then edited by Alexander Campbell and published in Virginia in 1826. One notable feature of the version is the replacement of the traditional English words “church” and “baptise”, with the English words “congregation” and “immerse”.

In 1838 Rev. John Williams, known as Philologus, a Baptist minister at Rhosllanerchrugog, began to translate The Living Oracles, from English into Welsh by reference to the Greek. John Williamʼs translation was called Yr Oraclau Bywiol, neu Ysgrifeniadau Cysegrlan Apostolion ac Efengylwyr Iesu Grist, a elwir y Testament Newydd. This was first published in 1842. There was a new edition in 1881, which added verse numbers, with an introduction by Rev Owen Davies of Caernarfon. This edition was last reprinted in 1887. Owen Davies claims that John Williams started to translate from English and then switched to translating from the Greek. The layout and style certainly follow the English edition, and up to the book of Acts footnotes often reference the English words in the original English edition. The translation uses the Welsh words “cynnulleidfa” instead of “eglwys” and “trochi” instead of “bedyddio”. In some places the Welsh text deviates from the English edition, where John Williams thought that a different translation into Welsh would be better.

The translation is important for being the first New Testament in modern Welsh since 1620. It was popular amongst the Baptists. Some people claim it was translated from English, whilst others claim it was translated from the Greek. The truth probably lies somewhere between the two claims.

Digital Edition

This was digitised for the Bible Society with help from MissionAssist in 2021. 

Publisher

British & Foreign Bible Society

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