Paul at Corinth
1After this Paul left Athens and went to Corinth. 2There he met a Jew named Aquila, a native of Pontus, who had recently come from Italy with his wife, Priscilla, because [the Roman Emperor] Claudius had issued an edict that all the #This action may have been prompted by conflicts within the Jewish community caused by the spread of Christianity.Jews were to leave Rome. Paul went to see them, 3and because he was of the same trade, he stayed with them; and they worked together for they were tent-makers. 4And he reasoned and debated in the synagogue every Sabbath, trying to persuade Jews and Greeks;
5but when Silas and Timothy came down from Macedonia (northern Greece), Paul began devoting himself completely to [preaching] the word, and solemnly testifying to the Jews that Jesus is the Christ (the Messiah, the Anointed). 6But since the Jews kept resisting and opposing him, and blaspheming [God], he #An act symbolizing rejection.shook out his robe and said to them, “Your blood (damnation) be on your own heads! I am innocent of it. From now on I will go to the Gentiles.” 7Then he moved on from there and went to the house of a man named #One early ms reads Titus; two early mss omit the name.Titius Justus, who worshiped God and whose house was next door to the synagogue. 8Crispus, the leader of the synagogue, believed in the Lord together with his entire household [joyfully acknowledging Him as Messiah and Savior]; and many of the Corinthians who heard [Paul’s message] were believing and being baptized. 9One night the Lord said to Paul in a vision, “Do not be afraid anymore, but go on speaking and do not be silent; 10for I am with you, and no one will attack you in order to hurt you, because I have many people in this city.” 11So he settled there for a year and six months, teaching them the word of God [concerning eternal salvation through faith in Christ].
12But when #Junius Gallio’s term as proconsul was brief a.d. 51-52, but is validated by an ancient inscription found at Delphi. This is important because it establishes the date of Paul’s visit to Corinth while on his second missionary journey and sets the date of his letters to the church at Thessalonica.Gallio was proconsul of Achaia (southern Greece), the Jews made a united attack on Paul and brought him before #The proconsul tried cases from a large, raised stone platform situated in front of his official residence.the judgment seat, 13declaring, “This man is persuading people to worship God in violation of the law [of Moses].” 14But when Paul was about to reply, Gallio said to the Jews, “If it were a matter of some misdemeanor or serious crime, O Jews, I would have reason to put up with you; 15but since it is merely a question [of doctrine within your religion] about words and names and your own law, see to it yourselves; I am #Gallio, the proconsul of Achaia, in essence ruled Paul’s teachings to be a form of Judaism and therefore legal under Roman law.unwilling to judge these matters.” 16And he drove them away from the judgment seat. 17Then the Greeks all seized #As leader of the synagogue Sosthenes would have presented the charges against Paul. Apparently something related to this made him the target of the attack. If this Sosthenes is the same man mentioned in 1 Cor 1:1, he later became a believer and follower of Christ.Sosthenes, the leader of the synagogue, and began beating him right in front of the judgment seat; but Gallio paid no attention to any of this.
18Paul stayed for a while longer, and then told the #Lit brethren.brothers and sisters goodbye and sailed for Syria; and he was accompanied by Priscilla and Aquila. At Cenchrea [the southeastern port of Corinth] he had his hair cut, because he was keeping a [Nazirite] vow [of abstention]. 19Then they arrived in Ephesus, and he left the others there; but he entered the synagogue and reasoned and debated with the Jews. 20When they asked him to stay for a longer time, he refused; 21but after telling them goodbye and saying, “I will return again if God is willing,” he set sail from Ephesus.
22When he had landed at Caesarea, he went up and #This marks the end of Paul’s second missionary journey.greeted the church [at Jerusalem], and then went down to Antioch.
Paul’s Third Missionary Journey
23After spending some time there, he left and traveled through the territory of Galatia and Phrygia, strengthening and encouraging all the disciples.
24Now a Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria, came to Ephesus. He was an eloquent and cultured man, and well versed in the [Hebrew] Scriptures. 25This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord, and being spiritually impassioned, he was speaking and teaching accurately the things about Jesus, though he knew only the baptism of John; 26and he began to speak boldly and fearlessly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained more accurately to him the way of God [and the full story of the life of Christ]. 27And when Apollos wanted to go across to Achaia (southern Greece), the brothers encouraged him and wrote to the disciples, [urging them] to welcome him gladly. When he arrived, he was a great help to those who, through grace, had believed and had followed Jesus as Lord and Savior, 28for he powerfully refuted the Jews in public discussions, proving by the Scriptures that Jesus is the Christ (the Messiah, the Anointed).