David in Old Age
1Now King David was #I.e. about seventy years old.old, advanced in years; they covered him with clothes, but he could not get warm. 2So his servants said to him, “Let a young virgin be found for my lord the king and let her attend him and become his nurse; let her lie against your chest, so that my lord the king may feel warm.” 3So they searched for a beautiful girl throughout the territory of Israel, and found Abishag the #The town of Shunam was located within the territory of Issachar.Shunammite, and brought her to the king. 4The girl was very beautiful; and she became the king’s nurse and served him, but the king #Lit did not know her.was not intimate with her.
5Then Adonijah the son of [David’s wife] Haggith exalted himself, saying, “I [the eldest living son] will be king.” So [following Absalom’s example] he prepared for himself chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him. 6His father [David] had #David’s failure to discipline his sons always resulted in tragedy.never rebuked him at any time by asking, “Why have you done this?” Adonijah was also a very handsome man, and he was born after Absalom. 7He had conferred with #The commander of Israel’s army.Joab the son of Zeruiah [David’s half sister] and with Abiathar the priest; and they followed Adonijah and helped him. 8But Zadok the priest, Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, Nathan the prophet, Shimei, Rei, and David’s #Lit mighty men and so throughout the chapter.most formidable warriors did not side with Adonijah [in his desire to become king].
9Adonijah sacrificed sheep and oxen and fattened steers by the Stone of Zoheleth, which is beside [the well] En-rogel; and he invited all his brothers, the king’s sons, and all the men of Judah, the king’s servants [to this feast]. 10But he did not invite Nathan the prophet, Benaiah, the most formidable warriors, or his brother Solomon.
Nathan and Bathsheba
11Then Nathan spoke to Bathsheba the mother of Solomon, “Have you not heard that Adonijah the son of Haggith has become king, and David our lord does not know about it? 12Come now, please let me advise you and save your life and the life of your son Solomon. 13Go at once to King David and say to him, ‘Did you not, my lord, O king, swear to your maidservant, saying, “Solomon your son shall certainly be king after me, and he shall sit on my throne”? Why then has Adonijah become king?’ 14Behold, while you are still there speaking with the king, I will come in after you and confirm your words.”
15So Bathsheba went to the king in his bedroom. Now the king was very old and weak, and Abishag the Shunammite was attending the king. 16So Bathsheba bowed down and paid respect to the king. And the king said, “#Lit What to you.What do you wish?” 17She said to him, “My lord, you swore by the Lord your God to your maidservant, saying, ‘Solomon your son shall certainly be king after me and he shall sit on my throne.’ 18But now, behold, Adonijah is [acting as] king; and now [as things stand], my lord the king, you do not know it. 19He has sacrificed oxen and fattened steers and sheep in abundance, and has invited all the king’s sons and Abiathar the priest and Joab the commander of the army [to a feast], but he did not invite your servant Solomon. 20Now as for you, my lord the king, the eyes of all #In general, sons of Israel or Israel or Israelites refers to all the people (males and females) of the various tribes descended from the twelve sons (Gen 35:23-26) of Jacob (later renamed Israel by God). In verses concerning things such as warfare or circumcision sons of Israel or Israel or Israelites usually refers only to the males. Tribes of ancient people were identified by the name of their founding ancestor. Therefore, this same general rule applies when referring to individual tribal groups, e.g. sons of Reuben, Reuben, Reubenites and so throughout.Israel are on you [waiting for you] to tell them who shall sit on the throne of my lord the king after him. 21Otherwise it will come about when my lord the king lies down [in death] with his fathers, that I and my son Solomon will be considered #Lit sinners.political enemies.”
22While she was still speaking with the king, Nathan the prophet came in. 23The king was told, “Here is Nathan the prophet.” And when he came before the king, he bowed before the king with his face to the ground. 24Then Nathan said, “My lord the king, have you said, ‘Adonijah shall be king after me, and he shall sit on my throne’? 25Because he has gone down today [to En-Rogel] and has sacrificed oxen and fattened steers and sheep in abundance, and has invited all the king’s sons, the commanders of the army and Abiathar the priest [to this feast]; and [right now] they are eating and drinking in his presence; and they say, ‘Long live King Adonijah!’ 26But he has not invited me, your servant, nor Zadok the priest, nor Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, nor your servant Solomon. 27If this thing has been done by my lord the king, why have you not shown your servants who shall sit on the throne of my lord the king after him?”
28King David answered, “Call Bathsheba to me.” And she came into the king’s presence and stood before him. 29Then the king swore an oath and said, “As the Lord lives, who has redeemed my soul from all distress, 30even as I swore to you by the Lord, the God of Israel, saying, ‘Solomon your son shall certainly be king after me, and he shall sit on my throne in my place’; I will indeed do so this very day.” 31Bathsheba bowed down with her face to the ground, and laid herself face down before the king and said, “May my lord King David live forever!”
32Then King David said, “Call Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada to me.” And they came before the king. 33The king told them, “Take the #This group would have included David’s personal bodyguards.servants of your lord with you and have Solomon my son #Placing Solomon on his royal mule announced to the people that David had chosen Solomon as his successor.ride on my own mule, and bring him down to [the spring at] #This was near En-rogel, the site of Adonijah’s celebration.Gihon [in the Kidron Valley]. 34Let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there as king over Israel. Then blow the trumpet and say, ‘Long live King Solomon!’ 35Then you shall come up [to Jerusalem] after him, and he shall come and sit on my throne and he shall reign as king in my place; for I have appointed him to be ruler over Israel and Judah.” 36Benaiah [the overseer of the king’s bodyguards], the son of Jehoiada answered the king and said, “Amen! (So be it!) May the Lord, the God of my lord the king, say so too. 37#This was a declaration of support for David and his choice of Solomon.Just as the Lord has been with my lord the king, so may He be with Solomon, and make his throne greater than the throne of my lord King David!”
Solomon Anointed King
38So Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the Cherethites, and the Pelethites [the king’s bodyguards] went down [from Jerusalem] and had Solomon ride on King David’s mule, and brought him to [the spring at] Gihon. 39Zadok the priest took a horn of [olive] oil from the [sacred] tent and anointed Solomon. They blew the trumpet, and all the people said, “Long live King Solomon!” 40All the people went up after him, and they were playing on flutes and rejoicing with great joy, so that the earth shook and seemed to burst open with their [joyful] sound.
41Now Adonijah and all the guests who were with him heard it as they finished eating. When Joab heard the trumpet sound, he said, “#Gihon was nearby, but because of the topography it was not visible.Why is the city in such an uproar?” 42While he was still speaking, behold, Jonathan the son of Abiathar the priest arrived. And Adonijah said, “Come in, for you are a valiant and trustworthy man and you bring good news.” 43But Jonathan replied to Adonijah, “No, on the contrary, our lord King David has made Solomon king! 44The king has sent him with Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the Cherethites, and the Pelethites; and they have had him ride on the king’s [own royal] mule. 45Also, Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed him king in Gihon, and they have come up from there celebrating, so the city is in an uproar. This is the noise which you have heard. 46Besides, Solomon has taken his seat on the throne of the kingdom. 47Moreover, the king’s servants came to bless (congratulate) our lord King David, saying, ‘May #See note v 37.your God make the name of Solomon better (more famous) than your name and make his throne greater than your throne.’ And the king bowed himself [before God] upon the bed. 48The king has also said this: ‘Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who has granted one [of my descendants] to sit on my throne today and allowed my eyes to see it.’ ”
49Then all Adonijah’s guests were terrified [of being branded as traitors] and stood up and left the feast, and each one went on his way. 50And Adonijah feared Solomon, and he got up and went [to the tabernacle on Mt. Zion] and took hold of the horns of the altar [seeking asylum]. 51Now Solomon was told, “Behold, Adonijah is afraid of King Solomon, and behold, he has grasped the horns of the altar [seeking God’s protection], saying, ‘King Solomon must swear to me today that he will not kill his servant with the sword.’ ” 52Solomon said, “If he [proves he] is a worthy man, not even one of his hairs shall fall to the ground; but if wickedness is found in him, he shall die.” 53So King Solomon sent [soldiers], and they brought Adonijah down from the altar [that was in front of the tabernacle]. And he came and bowed down to King Solomon, and Solomon said to him, “Go to your house.”