Sons and Heirs
1I mean that the heir, as long as he is a child, is no different from a slave,#4:1 For the contextual rendering of the Greek word doulos, see Preface; also verse 7 though he is the owner of everything, 2but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by his father. 3In the same way we also, when we were children, #See ch. 2:4were enslaved to the elementary principles#4:3 Or elemental spirits; also verse 9 of the world. 4But #[1 Tim. 2:6]; See Mark 1:15 when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, #Phil. 2:7; See John 1:14 born #[1 Tim. 2:15]; See Gen. 3:15 of woman, born #[Luke 2:21, 22, 27]under the law, 5#See ch. 3:13 to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive #ch. 3:26; See Rom. 8:15adoption as sons. 6And because you are sons, God has sent #[Rom. 5:5; 2 Cor. 3:17]; See Acts 16:7the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!” 7So you are no longer a slave, but a son, and if a son, then #See ch. 3:29an heir through God.
Paul’s Concern for the Galatians
8Formerly, when you #1 Cor. 1:21; 1 Thess. 4:5; 2 Thess. 1:8; 1 John 4:8 did not know God, you #[Eph. 2:11, 12; 1 Thess. 1:9] were enslaved to those that by nature #2 Chr. 13:9; Isa. 37:19; Jer. 2:11; 5:7; 16:20; [1 Cor. 8:4]are not gods. 9But now that you have come to know God, or rather #See 1 Cor. 8:3 to be known by God, #[ch. 3:3] how can you turn back again to #Rom. 8:3; Heb. 7:18the weak and worthless elementary principles of the world, whose slaves you want to be once more? 10#Rom. 14:5; Col. 2:16You observe days and months and seasons and years! 11I am afraid #ch. 2:2; 5:2, 4; 1 Thess. 3:5I may have labored over you in vain.
12Brothers,#4:12 Or Brothers and sisters; also verses 28, 31 #[2 Cor. 6:13] I entreat you, become as I am, for I also have become as you are. #[2 Cor. 2:5]You did me no wrong. 13You know it was #See 1 Cor. 2:3 because of a bodily ailment that I preached the gospel to you #[ch. 1:6]at first, 14and though my condition was a trial to you, you did not scorn or despise me, but received me #1 Sam. 29:9; [Mal. 2:7 (Gk.); 2 Cor. 5:20] as an angel of God, #See Matt. 10:40as Christ Jesus. 15What then has become of your blessedness? For I testify to you that, if possible, you would have gouged out your eyes and given them to me. 16Have I then become your enemy by #See ch. 2:5telling you the truth?#4:16 Or by dealing truthfully with you 17They make much of you, but for no good purpose. They want to shut you out, that you may make much of them. 18It is always good to be made much of for a good purpose, and #[ver. 13]not only when I am present with you, 19#[1 Cor. 4:15; Philem. 10] my little children, #[James 1:18] for whom I am again in the anguish of childbirth until Christ #Rom. 8:10is formed in you! 20I wish I could be present with you now and change my tone, for I am perplexed about you.
Example of Hagar and Sarah
21Tell me, you who desire to be under the law, do you not listen to the law? 22For it is written that Abraham had two sons, #Gen. 16:5 one by a slave woman and #Gen. 21:2one by a free woman. 23But #ver. 29; [Rom. 9:7] the son of the slave was born according to the flesh, while #ver. 28; Gen. 17:16-19; 18:10, 14; 21:1, 2; Heb. 11:11the son of the free woman was born through promise. 24Now this may be interpreted allegorically: these women are two #See Rom. 9:4 covenants. #Deut. 33:2One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children for slavery; she is Hagar. 25Now Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia;#4:25 Some manuscripts For Sinai is a mountain in Arabia she corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. 26But #[Heb. 12:22; Rev. 3:12; 21:2, 10]the Jerusalem above is free, and she is our mother. 27For it is written,
# Cited from Isa. 54:1 “Rejoice, O barren one who does not bear;
break forth and cry aloud, you who are not in labor!
For the children of the desolate one will be more
than those of the one who has a husband.”
28Now you,#4:28 Some manuscripts we brothers, #See ver. 23 like Isaac, #Rom. 9:8; See ch. 3:29are children of promise. 29But just as at that time he who was born according to the flesh #Gen. 21:9 persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, #See ch. 5:11so also it is now. 30But what does the Scripture say? #Cited from Gen. 21:10; [John 8:35]“Cast out the slave woman and her son, for the son of the slave woman shall not inherit with the son of the free woman.” 31So, brothers, we are not children of the slave but #[1 Pet. 3:6]of the free woman.