The Last Words of David
1Now these are the last words of David:
The oracle of David, the son of Jesse,
the oracle of #[ch. 7:8, 9; Ps. 78:70, 71] the man who was raised on high,
# [See ch. 22:51 above] the anointed of the God of Jacob,
the sweet psalmist of Israel:#23:1 Or the favorite of the songs of Israel
2 # [2 Pet. 1:21] “The Spirit of the Lord speaks by me;
his word is on my tongue.
3The God of Israel has spoken;
# See ch. 22:2, 3, 32, 47 the Rock of Israel has said to me:
When one rules justly over men,
ruling #Ex. 18:21; 2 Chr. 19:7, 9in the fear of God,
4he #[Judg. 5:31; Prov. 4:18; Hos. 6:5]dawns on them like the morning light,
like the sun shining forth on a cloudless morning,
like rain#23:4 Hebrew from rain that makes grass to sprout from the earth.
5“For does not my house stand so with God?
# ch. 7:15, 16; Ps. 89:29; Isa. 55:3 For he has made with me an everlasting covenant,
ordered in all things and secure.
For will he not cause to prosper
all my help and my desire?
6But worthless men#23:6 Hebrew worthlessness are all like thorns that are thrown away,
for they cannot be taken with the hand;
7but the man who touches them
arms himself with iron and the shaft of a spear,
and they are utterly consumed with fire.”#23:7 Hebrew consumed with fire in the sitting
David’s Mighty Men
8 # For ver. 8-39, see 1 Chr. 11:11-47 These are the names of the mighty men whom David had: #[1 Chr. 27:2, 3]Josheb-basshebeth a Tahchemonite; he was chief of the three.#23:8 Or of the captains He wielded his spear#23:8 Compare 1 Chronicles 11:11; the meaning of the Hebrew expression is uncertain against eight hundred whom he killed at one time.
9And next to him among the three mighty men was Eleazar the son of #1 Chr. 27:4 Dodo, son of #ver. 28Ahohi. He was with David when they defied the Philistines who were gathered there for battle, and the men of Israel withdrew. 10He rose and struck down the Philistines until his hand was weary, and his hand clung to the sword. And the Lord brought about a great victory that day, and the men returned after him only to strip the slain.
11And next to him was Shammah, the son of Agee the #ver. 33Hararite. The Philistines gathered together at Lehi,#23:11 Or gathered together as a camp where there was a plot of ground full of lentils, and the men fled from the Philistines. 12But he took his stand in the midst of the plot and defended it and struck down the Philistines, and the Lord worked a great victory.
13And three of the thirty chief men went down and came about harvest time to David at the #See 1 Sam. 22:1 cave of Adullam, when a band of Philistines was encamped #See ch. 5:18in the Valley of Rephaim. 14David was then #1 Sam. 22:4, 5 in the stronghold, and #[1 Sam. 13:23]the garrison of the Philistines was then at Bethlehem. 15And David said longingly, “Oh, that someone would give me water to drink from the well of Bethlehem that is by the gate!” 16Then the three mighty men broke through the camp of the Philistines and drew water out of the well of Bethlehem that was by the gate and carried and brought it to David. But he would not drink of it. He poured it out to the Lord 17and said, “Far be it from me, O Lord, that I should do this. Shall I drink #[Lev. 17:10]the blood of the men who went at the risk of their lives?” Therefore he would not drink it. These things the three mighty men did.
18Now Abishai, the brother of Joab, the son of Zeruiah, was chief of the thirty.#23:18 Two Hebrew manuscripts, Syriac; most Hebrew manuscripts three And he wielded his spear against three hundred men#23:18 Or slain ones and killed them and won a name beside the three. 19He was the most renowned of the thirty#23:19 Compare 1 Chronicles 11:21; Hebrew Was he the most renowned of the three? and became their commander, but he did not attain to #1 Chr. 11:21the three.
20And #ch. 8:18; 20:23 Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was a valiant man#23:20 Or the son of Ishhai of #Josh. 15:21Kabzeel, a doer of great deeds. He struck down two ariels#23:20 The meaning of the word ariel is unknown of Moab. He also went down and struck down a lion in a pit on a day when snow had fallen. 21And he struck down an Egyptian, a handsome man. The Egyptian had a spear in his hand, but Benaiah went down to him with a staff and snatched the spear out of the Egyptian’s hand and killed him with his own spear. 22These things did Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and won a name beside the three mighty men. 23He was renowned among the thirty, but he did not attain to the three. And David set him over his bodyguard.
24 # ch. 2:18; 1 Chr. 27:7 Asahel the brother of Joab was one of the thirty; Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem, 25#[1 Chr. 11:27; 27:8]Shammah of Harod, Elika of Harod, 26Helez the Paltite, Ira the son of Ikkesh #See ch. 14:2of Tekoa, 27Abiezer #Josh. 21:18 of Anathoth, Mebunnai #ch. 21:18the Hushathite, 28Zalmon #ver. 9 the Ahohite, Maharai #2 Kgs. 25:23of Netophah, 29Heleb the son of Baanah #[See ver. 28 above] of Netophah, Ittai the son of Ribai of #Josh. 18:28; Judg. 19:14Gibeah of the people of Benjamin, 30Benaiah #Judg. 12:13, 15; 1 Chr. 27:14 of Pirathon, Hiddai of the brooks of #Josh. 24:30; Judg. 2:9Gaash, 31Abi-albon the Arbathite, Azmaveth of #[ch. 3:16]Bahurim, 32Eliahba the Shaalbonite, the sons of Jashen, Jonathan, 33#ver. 11Shammah the Hararite, Ahiam the son of Sharar the Hararite, 34Eliphelet the son of Ahasbai #ch. 10:6, 8 of Maacah, #ch. 11:3 Eliam the son of #ch. 15:12Ahithophel the Gilonite, 35Hezro#23:35 Or Hezrai #Josh. 15:55of Carmel, Paarai the Arbite, 36Igal the son of Nathan #ch. 8:3of Zobah, Bani the Gadite, 37Zelek the Ammonite, Naharai #ch. 4:2of Beeroth, the armor-bearer of Joab the son of Zeruiah, 38#[ch. 20:26] Ira the #1 Chr. 2:53Ithrite, Gareb the Ithrite, 39#ch. 11:3, 6Uriah the Hittite: thirty-seven in all.