1 Samuel 14
ESV

1 Samuel 14

14
Jonathan Defeats the Philistines
1One day Jonathan the son of Saul said to the young man who carried his armor, “Come, let us go over to the Philistine garrison on the other side.” But he did not tell his father. 2Saul was staying in the outskirts of Gibeah in the pomegranate cave#14:2 Or under the pomegranate [tree] at #[See ch. 13:23 above] Migron. The people who were with him were about #ch. 13:15six hundred men, 3including #ch. 22:9, 11, 20 Ahijah the son of Ahitub, #ch. 4:21 Ichabod’s brother, son of Phinehas, son of Eli, the priest of the Lord #See Josh. 18:1 in Shiloh, #ch. 2:28wearing an ephod. And the people did not know that Jonathan had gone. 4Within #ch. 13:23the passes, by which Jonathan sought to go over to the Philistine garrison, there was a rocky crag on the one side and a rocky crag on the other side. The name of the one was Bozez, and the name of the other Seneh. 5The one crag rose on the north in front of Michmash, and the other on the south in front of #ch. 13:3, 16Geba.
6Jonathan said to the young man who carried his armor, “Come, let us go over to the garrison of these #ch. 17:26; Judg. 14:3 uncircumcised. It may be that the Lord will work for us, #[Judg. 7:4, 7; 2 Chr. 14:11]for nothing can hinder the Lord from saving by many or by few.” 7And his armor-bearer said to him, “Do all that is in your heart. Do as you wish.#14:7 Septuagint Do all that your mind inclines to Behold, I am with you heart and soul.” 8Then Jonathan said, “Behold, we will cross over to the men, and we will show ourselves to them. 9If they say to us, ‘Wait until we come to you,’ then we will stand still in our place, and we will not go up to them. 10But if they say, ‘Come up to us,’ then we will go up, for the Lord has given them into our hand. And this shall be the sign to us.” 11So both of them showed themselves to the garrison of the Philistines. And the Philistines said, “Look, Hebrews are coming #ch. 13:6out of the holes where they have hidden themselves.” 12And the men of the garrison hailed Jonathan and his armor-bearer and said, “Come up to us, and we will show you a thing.” And Jonathan said to his armor-bearer, “Come up after me, for the Lord has given them into the hand of Israel.” 13Then Jonathan climbed up on his hands and feet, and his armor-bearer after him. And they fell before Jonathan, and his armor-bearer killed them after him. 14And that first strike, which Jonathan and his armor-bearer made, killed about twenty men within as it were half a furrow’s length in an acre#14:14 Hebrew a yoke of land. 15And there was a panic in the camp, in the field, and among all the people. The garrison and even #ch. 13:17the raiders trembled, the earth quaked, and it became a very great panic.#14:15 Or became a panic from God
16And the watchmen of Saul in Gibeah of Benjamin looked, and behold, the multitude #Josh. 2:9was dispersing here and there.#14:16 Septuagint; Hebrew they went here and there 17Then Saul said to the people who were with him, “Count and see who has gone from us.” And when they had counted, behold, Jonathan and his armor-bearer were not there. 18So Saul said to Ahijah, “Bring the ark of God here.” For the ark of God went at that time with the people#14:18 Hebrew; Septuagint “Bring the ephod.” For at that time he wore the ephod before the people of Israel. 19Now #Num. 27:21while Saul was talking to the priest, the tumult in the camp of the Philistines increased more and more. So Saul said to the priest, “Withdraw your hand.” 20Then Saul and all the people who were with him rallied and went into the battle. And behold, #[Judg. 7:22; 2 Chr. 20:23]every Philistine’s sword was against his fellow, and there was very great confusion. 21Now the Hebrews who had been with the Philistines before that time and who had gone up with them into the camp, #[ch. 29:4]even they also turned to be with the Israelites who were with Saul and Jonathan. 22Likewise, when all the men of Israel #ver. 11; ch. 13:6 who had hidden themselves #See Josh. 24:33in the hill country of Ephraim heard that the Philistines were fleeing, they too followed hard after them in the battle. 23#Ex. 14:30 So the Lord saved Israel that day. And the battle passed beyond #ch. 13:5Beth-aven.
Saul’s Rash Vow
24And the men of Israel had been hard pressed that day, #[Josh. 6:26]so Saul had laid an oath on the people, saying, “Cursed be the man who eats food until it is evening and I am avenged on my enemies.” So none of the people had tasted food. 25Now when all the people#14:25 Hebrew land came to the forest, behold, there was honey on the ground. 26And when the people entered the forest, behold, the honey was dropping, but no one put his hand to his mouth, for the people feared the oath. 27But Jonathan had not heard his father charge the people with the oath, #ver. 43so he put out the tip of the staff that was in his hand and dipped it in the honeycomb and put his hand to his mouth, and his eyes became bright. 28Then one of the people said, “Your father strictly charged the people with an oath, saying, ‘Cursed be the man who eats food this day.’” And the people were #Judg. 8:4, 5faint. 29Then Jonathan said, “My father has troubled the land. See how my eyes have become bright because I tasted a little of this honey. 30How much better if the people had eaten freely today of the spoil of their enemies that they found. For now the defeat among the Philistines has not been great.”
31They struck down the Philistines that day from #ch. 13:2 Michmash to #Josh. 10:12 Aijalon. And the people were very #[See ver. 28 above]faint. 32The people #ch. 15:19 pounced on the spoil and took sheep and oxen and calves and slaughtered them on the ground. And the people ate them #[Lev. 3:17]with the blood. 33Then they told Saul, “Behold, the people are sinning against the Lord by eating #[See ver. 32 above]with the blood.” And he said, “You have dealt treacherously; roll a great stone to me here.”#14:33 Septuagint; Hebrew this day 34And Saul said, “Disperse yourselves among the people and say to them, ‘Let every man bring his ox or his sheep and slaughter them here and eat, and do not sin against the Lord by eating with the blood.’” So every one of the people brought his ox with him that night and they slaughtered them there. 35And Saul #[ch. 7:12, 17]built an altar to the Lord; it was the first altar that he built to the Lord.
36Then Saul said, “Let us go down after the Philistines by night and plunder them until the morning light; let us not leave a man of them.” And they said, “Do whatever seems good to you.” But #ver. 3, 18, 19the priest said, “Let us draw near to God here.” 37And Saul inquired of God, “Shall I go down after the Philistines? Will you give them into the hand of Israel?” #ch. 28:6But he did not answer him that day. 38And Saul said, “Come here, all you leaders of the people, and know and see how this sin has arisen today. 39For #See Ruth 3:13 as the Lord lives who saves Israel, #ver. 44though it be in Jonathan my son, he shall surely die.” But there was not a man among all the people who answered him. 40Then he said to all Israel, “You shall be on one side, and I and Jonathan my son will be on the other side.” And the people said to Saul, “Do what seems good to you.” 41Therefore Saul said, “O Lord God of Israel, why have you not answered your servant this day? If this guilt is in me or in Jonathan my son, O Lord, God of Israel, give Urim. But if this guilt is in your people Israel, give Thummim.”#14:41 Vulgate and Septuagint; Hebrew Therefore Saul said to the Lord, the God of Israel, “Give Thummim.” #[ch. 10:20, 21; Josh. 7:16-18; Acts 1:24-26]And Jonathan and Saul were taken, but the people escaped. 42Then Saul said, #[See ver. 41 above]“Cast the lot between me and my son Jonathan.” And Jonathan was taken.
43Then Saul said to Jonathan, #[Josh. 7:19] “Tell me what you have done.” And Jonathan told him, #ver. 27“I tasted a little honey with the tip of the staff that was in my hand. Here I am; I will die.” 44And Saul said, #See Ruth 1:17 “God do so to me and more also; #ver. 39you shall surely die, Jonathan.” 45Then the people said to Saul, “Shall Jonathan die, who has worked this great salvation in Israel? Far from it! #[See ver. 39 above] As the Lord lives, #2 Sam. 14:11; 1 Kgs. 1:52; Luke 21:18; Acts 27:34; [Matt. 10:30; Luke 12:7]there shall not one hair of his head fall to the ground, for he has worked with God this day.” So the people ransomed Jonathan, so that he did not die. 46Then Saul went up from pursuing the Philistines, and the Philistines went to their own place.
Saul Fights Israel’s Enemies
47When Saul had taken the kingship over Israel, he fought against all his enemies on every side, against Moab, #ch. 11:11 against the Ammonites, against Edom, against the kings of #2 Sam. 8:3; 10:6Zobah, and against the Philistines. Wherever he turned he routed them. 48And he did valiantly #ch. 15:3, 7and struck the Amalekites and delivered Israel out of the hands of those who plundered them.
49 # [ch. 31:2; 2 Sam. 2:8-10; 1 Chr. 8:33; 9:39] Now the sons of Saul were Jonathan, Ishvi, and Malchi-shua. And the names of his two daughters were these: the name of the firstborn was #ch. 18:17, 19Merab, and the name of the younger Michal. 50And the name of Saul’s wife was Ahinoam the daughter of Ahimaaz. #2 Sam. 2:8 And the name of the commander of his army was Abner the son of Ner, #[ch. 10:14]Saul’s uncle. 51#ch. 9:1Kish was the father of Saul, and Ner the father of Abner was the son of #ch. 9:1Abiel.
52There was hard fighting against the Philistines all the days of Saul. And when Saul saw any strong man, or any valiant man, #ch. 8:11he attached him to himself.

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