Simon Accuses Onias
1But Simon (mentioned earlier as the one who informed Apollonius about the money and brought trouble on the nation) also lied about Onias, claiming that he was responsible for the attack on Heliodorus and for the difficulties that followed. 2He dared to accuse Onias of plotting against the government — Onias who not only had made donations to Jerusalem and had protected the Temple, but who was eager to see that all our laws were obeyed. 3-4Apollonius son of Menestheus, the governor of Greater Syria, encouraged Simon in every evil thing he did, and Simon's opposition finally grew so strong that one of his trusted followers committed several murders. Onias realized how dangerous the situation had become, 5so he went to the king, not for the purpose of making accusations against his own people, but for the common good of all Jews, both in their private and public lives. 6He realized that without the king's cooperation there was no hope for peace, and Simon would keep on with his foolishness.
Jason Introduces Greek Customs
7 # 1 Macc 1.10 Later, when King Seleucus died and Antiochus (known as Epiphanes) became king, Jason the brother of Onias became High Priest by corrupt means. 8He went to see#4.8 went to see; or wrote to. the king and offered him twelve tonnes of silver with 2.7 more tonnes to be paid later. 9Jason also offered him an additional five tonnes of silver for the authority to establish a stadium where young men could train and to enrol the people of Jerusalem as citizens of Antioch.#4.9 the people… Antioch; or the men of Jerusalem as supporters of King Antiochus.
10The king gave his approval, and just as soon as Jason took over the office of High Priest, he made the people of Jerusalem change to the Greek way of life. 11#1 Macc 8.17He began by abolishing the favours that John had secured for the Jews from previous Syrian kings. (John was the father of the Eupolemus who later went to Rome to make an alliance and to establish ties of friendship.) Jason also did away with our Jewish customs and introduced new customs that were contrary to our Law. 12With great enthusiasm he built a stadium near the Temple hill and led our finest young men to adopt the Greek custom of participating in athletic events. 13Because of the unrivalled wickedness of Jason, that ungodly and illegitimate High Priest, the craze for the Greek way of life and for foreign customs reached such a point 14that even the priests lost all interest in their sacred duties. They lost interest in the Temple services and neglected the sacrifices. Just as soon as the signal was given, they would rush off to take part in the games that were forbidden by our Law. 15They did not care about anything their ancestors had valued; they prized only Greek honours. 16And this turned out to be the source of all their troubles, for the very people whose ways they admired and whose customs they tried to imitate became their enemies and oppressed them. 17It is a serious thing to disregard God's law, as you will see from the following events.
Jerusalem under Syrian Influence
18Once when the king was present for the athletic games that were held every five#4.18 five; or four. years in the city of Tyre, 19that worthless Jason sent some men there from Jerusalem, who were also enrolled as citizens of Antioch, to take ten tonnes of silver to pay for a sacrifice to the god Hercules. But even these men did not think it was fitting to use such a large sum of money for a sacrifice, and 20so the money originally intended as a sacrifice to Hercules was used for the construction of warships.
21When Apollonius son of Menestheus was sent to Egypt to attend the crowning of Philometor as king, Antiochus learnt that Philometor was opposed to his policies. Antiochus became concerned about the security of his own kingdom, so he went to Joppa and then on to Jerusalem. 22There he was welcomed with great splendour by Jason and the people of the city who went out to greet him, shouting and carrying torches. From Jerusalem Antiochus led his army to Phoenicia.
Menelaus Becomes High Priest
23Three years later, Jason sent Menelaus (brother of the Simon#4.23 simon: See 3.4. mentioned earlier) to take some money to the king and to get his decision on several important matters. 24But when he stood before the king, Menelaus impressed him with his show of authority and offered ten tonnes of silver more than Jason had offered for his appointment to the office of High Priest. 25As a result Menelaus returned to Jerusalem with papers from the king, confirming him as High Priest. But he possessed no other qualifications; he had the temper of a cruel tyrant and could be as fierce as a wild animal. 26So Jason, who had cheated his own brother out of the office of High Priest, was now forced to flee to the land of Ammon. 27Menelaus continued to be High Priest, but he never paid any of the money he had promised the king. 28However, Sostratus, the captain of the fort in Jerusalem, kept demanding the money, since it was his responsibility to collect it. So finally, the two men were summoned to appear before the king concerning the matter. 29Menelaus left his brother Lysimachus as acting High Priest, while Sostratus left the fort under the command of Crates, the commander of the mercenary troops from Cyprus.
The Murder of Onias
30Meanwhile, there was a revolt in the Cilician cities of Tarsus and Mallus, because the king had given those cities to Antiochis, his mistress. 31So the king left Andronicus, one of his high officials, in command, while he hurried off to Cilicia to restore order. 32Menelaus took advantage of this opportunity and presented Andronicus with some of the gold objects he had removed from the Temple in Jerusalem. He had already sold some of them to the city of Tyre and to other nearby cities. 33When Onias heard about this, he fled for safety to a temple at Daphne near the city of Antioch and openly accused Menelaus. 34#Dan 9.26Then Menelaus secretly persuaded Andronicus to kill Onias. So Andronicus went to Onias and deceived him with a friendly greeting and with promises of safety. Although Onias was suspicious, Andronicus finally lured him away from the safety of the temple and immediately murdered him in cold blood.
Andronicus Is Punished
35The Jews and Gentiles were very angry because Onias had been murdered. 36So when the king returned from the territory of Cilicia, the Jews of Antioch went to him and protested against this senseless killing. Many Gentiles felt the same way about the crime. 37King Antiochus was deeply grieved and was so filled with sorrow that he was moved to tears when he recalled the wisdom and self-control that Onias had shown throughout his life. 38Antiochus became so angry that he tore off Andronicus' royal robe, stripped him naked, and marched him round the city to the very spot where Onias had been murdered. Then Antiochus had this bloodthirsty murderer put to death. This was how the Lord gave him the punishment he deserved.
Lysimachus Is Killed
39Meanwhile, with the support of his brother Menelaus, Lysimachus had on numerous occasions robbed the Jerusalem Temple and had taken many of its gold objects. When word of this spread round, crowds began to gather in protest against Lysimachus. 40Finally, the crowds were becoming dangerous and were beginning to get out of control, so Lysimachus sent 3,000 armed men to attack them. They were led by Auranus, a man as stupid as he was old. 41When the Jews in the Temple courtyard realized what was happening, they picked up stones, pieces of wood, or simply handfuls of ashes from the altar and threw them at Lysimachus and his men in the confusion. 42They killed a few of Lysimachus' men, wounded many of them, and all the rest ran for their lives. Lysimachus himself, that temple robber, was killed near the Temple treasury.
Menelaus Is Brought to Trial
43Because of this incident Menelaus was brought to trial. 44When the king came to the city of Tyre, the Jewish authorities in Jerusalem sent three men to bring charges against Menelaus. 45When Menelaus saw that he was losing the case, he offered Ptolemy son of Dorymenes a large bribe to persuade the king to decide in his favour. 46Ptolemy then asked the king to go outside the courtroom with him, as though to get some fresh air, and there he persuaded him to change his mind 47and declare Menelaus innocent of the charges against him. So Menelaus was set free, although he had caused all the trouble; but the three men, whom even the cruel Scythians would have declared innocent, were sentenced to death. 48The three men had spoken in defence of Jerusalem, its people,#4.48 its people: some manuscripts also have the surrounding villages. and the sacred utensils stolen from the Temple, but they were quickly and unjustly executed. 49Some of the people of Tyre, however, showed their disgust with this crime and their respect for these men by giving them a splendid funeral. 50Menelaus stayed on in his position because of the greed of those in power. He grew more evil every day and became the worst enemy of his own people.