Satan Entered into Judas
1-2As the celebration of the Passover Lamb # 22:1–2 The Passover celebration was known as the “Feast of Bread without Yeast.” The Jewish people commemorate their exodus from Egypt to this day with a weeklong Passover feast. See Ex. 12:1–20; Deut. 16:1–8. was approaching, the Jewish religious leaders and scholars of the law continually schemed to find a way to murder Jesus without starting a riot—for they feared the crowds.
3At that time Satan himself entered into Judas the locksmith, # 22:3 See the last footnote on Luke 6:14–16. who was one of the twelve apostles. 4He secretly went to the religious hierarchy and the captains of the temple guards to discuss with them how he could betray Jesus and turn him over to their hands. 5The religious hierarchy was elated over Judas’ treachery, and they agreed to give him a sum of money in exchange for Jesus’ betrayal. 6Judas vowed that he would find them a suitable opportunity to betray Jesus when he was away from the crowds.
Jesus Prophesies the Location of the Last Supper
7-8On the day the Passover lambs were to be sacrificed, Jesus sent for Peter and John and instructed them, “Go and prepare the Passover supper so we can eat it together.”
9They asked him, “Where do we make the preparations to eat the meal?”
10Jesus gave them this sign: “When you enter the city, you will find a man # 22:10 Carrying water was a task given to women; it would have been easy to spot a man carrying the water jug. carrying a jug of water. # 22:10 Jerusalem would have been filled with pilgrims coming to celebrate the feast. Every house would be filled with additional guests, so finding a room for Jesus and the Twelve would be no easy task. It is possible that this man carrying a jug of water (normally a woman’s task) would be an Essene. They were the only Jewish men who culturally would carry water in this way since they were celibates. They had a community in Jerusalem that had a gate called the “Essene Gate.” They also had a different calendar than the typical Jewish one, which meant they would still have guest rooms available. Follow him home 11and say to the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher told us to ask you, “Where is the room I may use to have the Passover meal with my disciples?” ’ 12He will then take you to a large, fully furnished upstairs room. Make the preparations for us there.”
13They went and found everything to be exactly like Jesus had prophesied, and they prepared the Passover meal.
Jesus and His Disciples Eat the Last Supper
14When Jesus arrived at the upper room, he took his place at the table along with all the apostles. 15Then he told them, “I have longed with passion and desire to eat this Passover lamb with you before I endure my sufferings. 16I promise you that the next time we eat this, we will be together in the feast of God’s kingdom.”
17Then he raised a cup and gave thanks to God and said to them, “Take this and pass it on to one another and drink. 18I promise you that the next time we drink this wine, we will be together in the feast of God’s kingdom.” # 22:18 Verses 17–18 are not found in most Aramaic texts. Most Greek texts and a fifth-century Aramaic manuscript known as “the Palestinian Syriac” include them in the narrative.
19Then he lifted up a loaf, and after praying a prayer of thanksgiving to God, he gave each of his apostles a piece of bread, saying, “This loaf is my body, # 22:19 From here to the end of v. 20 is considered the most highly debated passage in Luke’s Gospel because a few reliable Greek manuscripts do not have it. Yet there is ample internal evidence to argue for its inclusion. which is now being offered to you. Always eat it to remember me.”
20After supper was over, he lifted the cup again and said, “This cup is my blood of the new covenant # 22:20 The Aramaic word used here is literally “new testament.” I make with you, and it will be poured out soon for all of you. 21But I want you to know that the hands of the one who delivers me to be the sacrifice are with mine on the table this very moment. 22The Son of Man must now go where he will be sacrificed. But there will be great and unending doom for the man who betrays me.”
23The apostles questioned among themselves which one of them was about to do this.
Apostles Argue over Which of Them Will Be the Greatest
24The disciples bickered over which one of them would be considered the greatest # 22:24 This took place at the Lord’s Passover table. Their discussion of who was the worst among them led them to argue over who was the greatest. Jesus was only hours away from the horrible death of crucifixion while his apostles argued. in the kingdom. 25Jesus interrupted their argument, saying, “The kings and men of authority in this world rule oppressively over their subjects, claiming that they do it for the good of the people. They are obsessed with how others see them. # 22:25 The Aramaic is actually “They want to be called ‘servants of goodness.’ ” 26But this is not your calling. You will lead by a different model. The greatest one among you will live as one called to serve others without honor. # 22:26 The Greek text uses the word here for “youngest,” and the Aramaic is “small one.” In Hebrew culture in the days of Jesus, the firstborn of the household had honor, while the youngest accepted the role of menial service to all the others of the house. The greatest honor and authority is reserved for the one who has a servant heart. 27The leaders who are served are the most important in your eyes, but in the kingdom, it is the servants who lead. Am I not here with you as one who serves?
28“Because you have stood with me through all my trials and ordeals, 29I am promising you the kingdom that the Father has promised me. 30We will celebrate in this kingdom and you will feast with me at my table. And each of you will be given a throne, twelve thrones in all, and you will be made rulers on thrones to judge the tribes of Israel.”
Jesus Prophesies Peter’s Denial
31“Peter, my dear friend, listen to what I’m about to tell you. Satan has obtained permission to come and sift you all like wheat and test your faith. 32But I have prayed for you, Peter, that you would stay faithful to me no matter what comes. Remember this: after you have turned back to me and have been restored, make it your life mission to strengthen the faith of your brothers.”
33“But Lord,” Peter replied, “I am ready to stand with you to the very end, even if it means prison or death!”
34Jesus looked at him and prophesied, “Before the rooster crows in the morning, you will deny # 22:34 The Aramaic text says “blasphemed.” three times that you even know me.”
35Then he said to all of them, “When I sent you out empty-handed, did you lack anything?”
“Not a thing,” they answered. “God provided all we needed.”
Jesus said, “But now I say to you: Take what you need. 36If you have money, take it # 22:36 Now the disciples were to take needed items with them, including money, for they were to be a source of blessing to others with their generosity. —and a knapsack and a sword. # 22:36 It is possible that Jesus was using symbolic speech, for we take with us the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God. See Eph. 6:17. Danger is imminent. # 22:36 The text here is a Hebraic figure of speech: “If you don’t have a sword, you’d better sell something and buy one,” which implies that danger is imminent. 37For the prophetic Scripture about me ‘He will be accused of being a criminal’ # 22:37 See Isa. 53:8–9. will now come to pass. All that was prophesied of me will be fulfilled.”
38The disciples told him, “Lord, we already have two swords!”
“You still don’t understand,” # 22:38 Or “That will be enough.” Jesus is saying, “Never mind. You still don’t get it.” He corrected their thinking about taking swords and using violent means in vv. 50–51. Jesus responded.
The Garden of Gethsemane
39Jesus left the upper room with his disciples # 22:39 That is, with the exception of Judas. See v. 47. and, as was his habit, went to the Mount of Olives, his place of secret prayer. 40There he told the apostles, “Keep praying for strength to be spared from the severe test of your faith that is about to come.”
41Then he withdrew from them a short distance # 22:41 Literally “a stone’s throw away.” to be alone. Kneeling down, he prayed, 42“Father, if you are willing, take this cup of agony away from me. # 22:42 Jesus asked the Father to be spared from death in the garden so that he could go all the way to the cross. His prayer was answered. The blood that dripped in the garden would not redeem. Jesus had to carry the cross and fulfill all that was written of him. See Heb. 5:7. But no matter what, your will must be mine.”
43Jesus called # 22:43 Translated from the Aramaic text. The Greek manuscripts state it passively: “An angel from heaven appeared.” for an angel of glory to strengthen him, and the angel appeared. 44He prayed even more passionately, like one being sacrificed, # 22:44 The Aramaic text is literally “He prayed sacrificially.” until he was in such intense agony of spirit that his sweat became drops of blood, dripping onto the ground. # 22:44 Although vv. 43–44 are found in the Aramaic manuscript, many Greek texts omit them. Most of the early church fathers included them in their translations and commentaries. Though very rare, the phenomenon of hematidrosis, sweating blood, is well documented. Under great emotional stress, tiny capillaries in the sweat glands can break, thus mixing blood with sweat. This process could have marked weakness and possibly shock.
45When Jesus finished praying, he got up and went to his disciples and found them all asleep, for they were exhausted and overwhelmed with sorrow. 46“Why are you sleeping?” he asked them. “You need to be alert and pray for the strength to endure the great temptation.”
Judas Betrays Jesus
47No sooner had he finished speaking when suddenly a mob approached, and in front of the mob was his disciple Judas. He walked up close to Jesus and greeted him with a kiss. For he had agreed to give the religious leaders a sign, saying, “The one I kiss is the one to seize.” # 22:47 Nearly every Greek manuscript leaves out this information. The Aramaic text includes it.
48Jesus looked at him with sorrow and said, “A kiss, Judas? Are you really going to betray the Son of Man with a kiss?”
49When the other disciples understood what was happening, they asked, “Lord, shall we fight them with our swords?”
50Just then, one of the disciples swung his sword at the high priest’s servant and slashed off his right ear. # 22:50 The servant’s name was Malchus (John 18:10). What Peter did was a criminal act that could have ruined his entire life. Jesus was concerned both for the wounded man and Peter’s future.
51Jesus stopped the incident from escalating any further by saying, “Enough of this!” Then he touched the right side of the injured man’s head and the ear grew back # 22:51 Implied in the context of this miracle. Jesus, the Creator, re-created his ear. The last thing Jesus did before they tied and bound his beautiful hands to arrest him in Gethsemane: He used his healing hands to restore the cut-off ear that Peter slashed (here and John 18:12). He was bound for hours until they loosed his hands to pierce them with nails. —he was healed!
52Jesus turned to those who had come to seize him—the ruling priests, the officers of the temple police, and the religious leaders—and said, “Am I a criminal that you come to capture me with clubs and swords? Wasn’t I with you day after day, teaching in the temple courts? 53You could have seized me at any time. But in the darkness of night you have now found your time, for it belongs to you and to the prince of darkness.” # 22:53 The “prince of darkness” is Satan. This phrase is found only in the Aramaic manuscripts. The Greek text states, “the powers of darkness.”
Peter Denies He Knew Jesus
54The religious leaders seized Jesus and led him away, but Peter followed from a safe distance. They brought him to the home of the high priest, where people were already gathered out in the courtyard. 55Someone had built a fire, so Peter inched closer and sat down among them to stay warm.
56A girl noticed Peter sitting in the firelight. Staring at him, she pointed him out and said, “This man is one of Jesus’ disciples!”
57Peter flatly denied it, saying, “What are you talking about, girl? I don’t know him!”
58A little while later, someone else spotted Peter and said, “I recognize you. You’re one of his, I know it!”
Peter again said, “I’m not one of his disciples.”
59About an hour later, someone else identified Peter and insisted he was a disciple of Jesus, saying, “Look at him! He’s from Galilee, # 22:59 Peter’s accent gave him away as being a Galilean. See also Mark 14:70. just like Jesus. I know he’s one of them.”
60But Peter was adamant. “Listen, I don’t know what you’re talking about. Don’t you understand? I don’t even know him.” While the words were still in his mouth, the rooster crowed.
61At that moment, the Lord, who was being led through the courtyard by his captors, # 22:61 Implied by the context, necessary for proper understanding of the narrative. turned around and gazed at Peter. All at once Peter remembered the words Jesus had prophesied over him, “Before the rooster crows in the morning, you will deny three times that you even know me.” 62Peter burst into tears, # 22:62 It is not just our sin that causes us to weep. It is seeing the Savior whom we have sinned against that brings our tears. ran off from the crowd, and wept bitterly.
Jesus Is Mocked and Severely Beaten
63Those who were guarding Jesus mocked and beat him severely. 64They also made fun of him, blindfolding him and slapping his face and saying, “Prove that you are a prophet and tell us which one of us hit you!” 65They blasphemed and heaped insult after insult upon him.
Jesus before the Jewish Council
66At daybreak the high priests, the experts of the law, and the top religious leaders convened and had Jesus brought before their council. 67They asked him point blank, “Tell us, are you the Christ, the Messiah, or not?”
Jesus responded, “If I tell you the truth, you won’t believe me. 68And if I question you, you will not answer me or release me. # 22:68 The phrase “or release me” is found only in the Aramaic text. 69But from today on, the Son of Man will be enthroned in the place of honor, power, and authority with Almighty God.”
70They all shouted, “Then you do claim to be the Son of God?”
He said to them, “You are the ones who say I am.”
71They all shouted, “We’ve heard it from his very lips! What further proof do we need?”