Clean and Unclean Land Animals
1The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron: 2“Tell the Israelites: You may eat#Lv 11:1-23; Dt 14:3-21; Dn 1:3-16; Ac 10:9-16; 11:3; Rm 14:2; Gl 2:11-14 all these kinds of land animals.#Dt 14:4-21; Ac 10:9-16; Rm 14:14 3You may eat any animal with divided hooves and that chews the cud. 4But among the ones that chew the cud or have divided hooves you are not to eat these:
camels,#Gn 24:64; 31:34; Dt 14:7; Jr 2:23; Mt 19:24; 23:24; Mk 10:25; Lk 18:25 though they chew the cud,
do not have divided hooves — they are unclean for you;
5hyraxes,#Dt 14:7; Ps 104:18; Pr 30:26 though they chew the cud,
do not have hooves — they are unclean for you;
6hares, though they chew the cud,
do not have hooves — they are unclean for you;
7pigs, though they have divided hooves,
do not chew the cud — they are unclean for you.
8Do not eat any of their meat or touch their carcasses — they are unclean for you.#Lv 7:21; 11:24-27; Is 52:11; 2Co 6:17
Clean and Unclean Aquatic Animals
9“This is what you may eat from all that is in the water: You may eat everything in the water that has fins and scales, whether in the seas or streams. 10But these are to be abhorrent to you: everything in the seas or streams that does not have fins and scales among all the swarming things and other living creatures#Gn 1:20; 2:19; Lv 11:46 in the water. 11They are to remain abhorrent to you; you must not eat any of their meat, and you must abhor their carcasses. 12Everything in the water that does not have fins and scales will be abhorrent to you.
13“You are to abhor these birds. They must not be eaten because they are abhorrent:
eagles,#11:13 Or griffon-vultures#Dt 14:12; 28:49; 32:11; Pr 23:5; Is 40:31 bearded vultures,
Egyptian vultures,#11:13 Or ospreys, or bearded vultures 14kites,#11:14 Or hawks
any kind of falcon,#11:14 Or buzzards, or hawks#Dt 14:13; Jb 28:7
15every kind of raven, 16ostriches,#11:16 Or eagle owls
short-eared owls, gulls,#11:16 Or long-eared owls
any kind of hawk,#Dt 14:15; Jb 39:26
17little#11:17 Or tawny owls, cormorants,#11:17 Or pelicans
long-eared owls,#11:17 Or ibis#Dt 14:16
18barn#11:18 Or little owls, eagle owls,#11:18 Or pelicans, or horned owls#Dt 14:17; Ps 102:6; Is 34:11; Zph 2:14
ospreys, 19storks,#11:19 Or herons
any kind of heron,#11:19 Or cormorants, or hawks
hoopoes, and bats.
Clean and Unclean Flying Insects
20“All winged insects that walk on all fours are to be abhorrent to you. 21But you may eat these kinds of all the winged insects that walk on all fours: those that have jointed legs above their feet for hopping on the ground. 22You may eat these:
any kind of locust,#Dt 28:38 katydid, cricket, and grasshopper.
23All other winged insects that have four feet are to be abhorrent to you.
Purification after Touching Dead Animals
24“These will make you unclean. Whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean#Ezk 22:3-4; 23:17; 44:25; Mc 2:10; Hg 2:13 until evening, 25and whoever carries any of their carcasses is to wash his clothes and will be unclean until evening.#Lv 16:28; 17:15-16; 22:6; Nm 19:7-10 26All animals that have hooves but do not have a divided hoof and do not chew the cud are unclean for you. Whoever touches them becomes unclean. 27All the four-footed animals#Rv 18:2 that walk on their paws are unclean for you. Whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean until evening, 28and anyone who carries their carcasses is to wash his clothes and will be unclean until evening. They are unclean for you.
29“These creatures that swarm#Ex 8:3 on the ground are unclean for you:
weasels,#11:29 Or mole rats, or rats mice,#1Sm 6:4-5,11,18; Is 66:17
any kind of large lizard,#11:29 Or of thorn-tailed, or dabb lizard, or of crocodile
30geckos, monitor lizards,#11:30 Or spotted lizards, or chameleons
common lizards,#11:30 Or geckos, or newts, or salamanders skinks,#11:30 Or sand lizards, or newts, or snails
and chameleons.#11:30 Or salamanders, or moles
31These are unclean for you among all the swarming creatures. Whoever touches them when they are dead will be unclean until evening. 32When any one of them dies and falls on anything it becomes unclean — any item of wood, clothing, leather, sackcloth,#Gn 37:34 or any implement used for work. It is to be rinsed with water and will remain unclean until evening; then it will be clean. 33If any of them falls into any clay pot, everything in it will become unclean; you are to break it. 34Any edible food#Lv 26:5 coming into contact with that unclean water will become unclean, and any drinkable liquid in any container will become unclean. 35Anything one of their carcasses falls on will become unclean. If it is an oven or stove, it is to be smashed; it is unclean and will remain unclean for you. 36A spring or cistern containing water will remain clean, but someone who touches a carcass in it will become unclean. 37If one of their carcasses falls on any seed that is to be sown, it is clean; 38but if water has been put on the seed and one of their carcasses falls on it, it is unclean for you.
39“If one of the animals that you use for food dies, anyone who touches its carcass will be unclean until evening. 40Anyone who eats some of its carcass is to wash his clothes and will be unclean until evening. Anyone who carries its carcass must wash his clothes and will be unclean until evening.
Unclean Swarming Creatures
41“All the creatures that swarm on the earth are abhorrent; they must not be eaten. 42Do not eat any of the creatures that swarm on the earth, anything that moves on its belly or walks on all fours or on many feet,#11:42 Lit fours, to anything multiplying pairs of feet for they are abhorrent. 43Do not become contaminated by any creature that swarms; do not become unclean or defiled by them. 44For I am the Lord your God,#Nm 15:41 so you must consecrate yourselves#Ex 19:22; Lv 20:7; Nm 11:18; Ezk 38:23 and be holy because I am holy.#Lv 19:2; 20:7,26; 1Pt 1:16 Do not defile yourselves by any swarming creature that crawls on the ground. 45For I am the Lord, who brought you up from the land of Egypt to be your God,#Ex 6:7; 20:2; Lv 25:38,42; 26:13,45 so you must be holy because I am holy.#Lv 21:8
46“This is the law concerning animals, birds, all living creatures that move in the water, and all creatures that swarm on the ground, 47in order to distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between the animals#Lv 26:6 that may be eaten and those that may not be eaten.”