Jerusalem! Jerusalem! - The seat of religious power and the focus of Israel’s worship. Jerusalem meaning the foundation of peace was the hope of all Israel. It was where the presence of YHWH was promised. The positional power of Jerusalem provided access to Roman authorities as well as control over the ways of Israel. Peace by positional power.
Herod Antipas who was one of the sons of Herod the Great. You’ll remember Herod the Great as the master nation builder and iron fist ruler who tried to kill the infant Jesus in Bethlehem. After Herod the Great’s death the kingdom was broken into parts with his sons having the responsibility to govern them. Herod Antipas, the Herod referred to here in Luke 11, received as his inheritance the region around Galilee. As with any governor of this day, Herod had great military and economic power within his region of Galilee. His future rested upon being able to keep Rome off his back by collecting taxes and keeping the residents in Galilee in line. He would then be quick to neutralize threats to the collection of taxes or the Pax Romana (peace of Rome.) Peace by military and economic might.
The Pharisees developed a tradition of strict interpretation of the Mosaic law, developing an extensive set of oral extensions of the law designed to maintain religious identity and purity. The origin of the term “Pharisee” comes from the Aramaic word which means “to separate,” “divide,” or “distinguish.” Peace by separation.
6 He said to me, “This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel: Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, says the Lord of hosts. Zechariah 4:6 (NRSV)
Brothers and sisters, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. 2 I can testify that they have a zeal for God, but it is not enlightened. 3 For, being ignorant of the righteousness that comes from God, and seeking to establish their own, they have not submitted to God’s righteousness. 4 For Christ is the end of the law so that there may be righteousness for everyone who believes. Romans 10:1–4 (NRSV)
Consequently Wesley stresses that two signs give evidence of the union of Christian believers with the Spirit. The first is confidence, an assurance that we are children of God. The second is character, a moral transformation that is the fruit of union with the Spirit. - Listening to God in Times of Discernment by Gordon T. Smith