God’s Case against Jacob’s Heirs
1Ephraim chases # Or feeds on, or tends the wind # Jr 22:22; Hs 4:19
and pursues the east wind. # Gn 41:6; Ezk 17:10
He continually multiplies lies and violence.
He makes a covenant with Assyria, # Hs 5:13; 7:11; 8:9
and olive oil is carried to Egypt. # 2Kg 17:4
2The Lord also has a dispute with Judah.
He is about to punish Jacob according to his ways; # Hs 4:9; 7:2
He will repay him based on his actions.
3In the womb he grasped his brother’s heel, # Gn 25:26; 27:36
and as an adult he wrestled with God. # Gn 32:24-28
4Jacob struggled with the Angel and prevailed;
he wept and sought His favor. # Gn 32:26
He found him # Or Him at Bethel, # Gn 28:13-15; 35:10-15
and there He spoke with him. # LXX, Syr; MT reads us # Gn 28:10-22; 35:1-14
5Yahweh is the God of Hosts;
Yahweh is His name. # Ex 3:15
6But you must return to your God. # Hs 6:1-3; 10:12
Maintain love and justice, # Hs 6:6
and always put your hope in God. # Mc 7:7
7A merchant loves to extort # Hs 7:14
with dishonest scales in his hands. # Pr 11:1; Am 8:5; Mc 6:11
8But Ephraim says:
“How rich I have become; # Ps 62:10; Hs 13:6
I made it all myself.
In all my earnings,
no one can find any crime in me # Hs 4:8; 14:1; Am 3:15; 6:4-6
that I can be punished for! ” # Lit crime which is sin
Judgment on Apostate Israel
9I have been Yahweh your God
ever since # LXX reads God who brought you out of the land of Egypt. # Hs 11:1; 13:3
I will make you live in tents again, # Lv 23:42
as in the festival days.
10I spoke through the prophets # Jr 7:25
and granted many visions;
I gave parables through the prophets. # Ezk 17:2; 20:49
11Since Gilead is full of evil, # Hs 6:8
they will certainly come to nothing.
They sacrifice bulls in Gilgal; # Hs 4:15; 9:15
even their altars will be like heaps of rocks # Hs 8:11; 10:1-2
on the furrows of a field.
Further Indictment of Jacob’s Heirs
12Jacob fled to the land of Aram. # Gn 28:5
Israel worked to earn a wife; # Gn 29:20
he tended flocks for a wife. # Gn 29:1-20
13The Lord brought Israel from Egypt by a prophet, # Ex 14:19-22; Is 63:11-14
and Israel was tended by a prophet.
14Ephraim has provoked bitter anger, # 2Kg 17:7-18
so his Lord will leave his bloodguilt on him # Ezk 18:10-13
and repay him for his contempt. # Dn 11:18; Mc 6:16