1 Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except by God’s appointment,#tn Grk “by God.” and the authorities that exist have been instituted by God. 2 So the person who resists such authority#tn Grk “the authority,” referring to the authority just described. resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will incur judgment 3 (for rulers cause no fear for good conduct but for bad). Do you desire not to fear authority? Do good and you will receive its commendation, 4 for it is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be in fear, for it does not bear the sword in vain. It is God’s servant to administer retribution on the wrongdoer. 5 Therefore it is necessary to be in subjection, not only because of the wrath of the authorities#tn Grk “its wrath”; the referent (the governing authorities) has been specified in the translation for clarity. but also because of your conscience.#tn Grk “because of (the) conscience,” but the English possessive “your” helps to show whose conscience the context implies. 6 For this reason you also pay taxes, for the authorities#tn Grk “they”; the referent (the governing authorities) has been specified in the translation for clarity. are God’s servants devoted to governing.#tn Grk “devoted to this very thing.” 7 Pay everyone what is owed: taxes to whom taxes are due, revenue to whom revenue is due, respect to whom respect is due, honor to whom honor is due. 8 Owe no one anything, except to love one another, for the one who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 9 For the commandments,#tn Grk “For the…” (with the word “commandments” supplied for clarity). The Greek article (“the”) is used here as a substantiver to introduce the commands that are quoted from the second half of the Decalogue (ExSyn 238). “Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal, do not covet,”#sn A quotation from Exod 20:13-15, 17; Deut 5:17-19, 21. (and if there is any other commandment) are summed up in this, “Love your neighbor as yourself.”#sn A quotation from Lev 19:18. 10 Love does no wrong to a neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law. 11 And do this#tn Grk “and this,” probably referring to the command to love (13:8-10); hence, “do” is implied from the previous verses. because we know#tn The participle εἰδότες (eidotes) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. the time, that it is already the hour for us to awake from sleep, for our salvation is now nearer than when we became believers. 12 The night has advanced toward dawn; the day is near. So then we must lay aside the works of darkness, and put on the weapons of light.