Parallel
9
1 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision. the fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from the sky#tn Or “from heaven” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”). to the earth, and he was given the key to the shaft of the abyss.#tn On this term BDAG 2 s.v. ἄβυσσος 2 states, “netherworld, abyss, esp. the abode of the dead Ro 10:7 (Ps 106:26) and of demons Lk 8:31; dungeon where the devil is kept Rv 20:3; abode of the θηρίον, the Antichrist 11:7; 17:8; of ᾿Αβαδδών (q.v.), the angel of the underworld 9:11…φρέαρ τῆς ἀ. 9:1f; capable of being sealed 9:1; 20:1, 3.” 2 He#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. opened the shaft of the abyss and smoke rose out of it#tn Grk “the shaft,” but since this would be somewhat redundant in English, the pronoun “it” is used here. like smoke from a giant furnace. The#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. sun and the air were darkened with smoke from the shaft. 3 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision. out of the smoke came locusts onto the earth, and they were given power#tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.” like that of the scorpions of the earth. 4 They#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. were told#tn The dative indirect object (αὐταῖς, autais) was converted into the subject (“they”) as this more closely approximates English usage. The following ἵ῞να (Jina) is taken as substantival, introducing a direct object clause. In this case, because it is reported speech, the ἵνα is similar to the declarative ὅτι (Joti). not to damage the grass of the earth, or any green plant or tree, but only those people#tn Grk “men”; but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense here of both men and women. who did not have the seal of God on their#tn The article τῶν (twn) has been translated as a possessive pronoun here (ExSyn 215). forehead. 5 The locusts#tn Grk “It was not permitted to them”; the referent (the locusts) has been specified in the translation for clarity. were not given permission#tn The word “permission” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. to kill#tn The two ἵνα (Jina) clauses of 9:5 are understood to be functioning as epexegetical or complementary clauses related to ἐδόθη (edoqh). them, but only to torture#tn On this term BDAG 168 s.v. βασανισμός states, “1. infliction of severe suffering or pain associated with torture or torment, tormenting, torture Rv 9:5b. – 2. the severe pain experienced through torture, torment vs. 5a; 14:11; 18:10, 15; (w. πένθος) vs. 7.” them#tn The pronoun “them” is not in the Greek text but is picked up from the previous clause. for five months, and their torture was like that#tn Grk “like the torture,” but this is redundant in contemporary English. of a scorpion when it stings a person.#tn Grk “a man”; but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in an individualized sense without being limited to the male gender. 6 In#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. those days people#tn Grk “men”; but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense here of both men and women. will seek death, but#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. will not be able to#tn The phrase “not be able to” was used in the translation to emphasize the strong negation (οὐ μή, ou mh) in the Greek text. find it; they will long to die, but death will flee from them.
7 Now#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of the description of the locusts, which is somewhat parenthetical in the narrative. the locusts looked like horses equipped for battle. On#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. their heads were something like crowns similar to gold,#tn The translation attempts to bring out the double uncertainty in this clause in the Greek text, involving both the form (ὡς στέφανοι, Jw" stefanoi, “like crowns”) and the material (ὅμοιοι χρυσῷ, {omoioi crusw, “similar to gold”). and their faces looked like men’s#tn Or “human faces.” The Greek term ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpos) is often used in a generic sense, referring to both men and women. However, because “women’s hair” in the next clause suggests a possible gender distinction here, “men’s” was retained. faces. 8 They#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. had hair like women’s hair, and their teeth were like lions’ teeth. 9 They had breastplates#tn Or perhaps, “scales like iron breastplates” (RSV, NRSV) although the Greek term θώραξ (qwrax) would have to shift its meaning within the clause, and elsewhere in biblical usage (e.g., Eph 6:14; 1 Thess 5:8) it normally means “breastplate.” See also L&N 8.38. like iron breastplates, and the sound of their wings was like the noise of many horse-drawn chariots charging into battle. 10 They have#tn In the Greek text there is a shift to the present tense here; the previous verbs translated “had” are imperfects. tails and stingers like scorpions, and their ability#tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.” to injure people for five months is in their tails. 11 They have as king over them the angel of the abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon.#sn Both the Hebrew Abaddon and the Greek Apollyon mean “Destroyer.”
12 The first woe has passed, but#tn Grk “behold.” Here ἰδού (idou) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in the context. two woes are still coming after these things!
13 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision. the sixth angel blew his trumpet, and I heard a single voice coming from the#tc ‡ Several key mss (Ì47 א1 A 0207 1611 2053 2344 pc lat syh co) lack the word τεσσάρων (tessarwn, “four”) before κεράτων (keratwn, “horns”). The word seems to have been added by scribes because a “horned” altar (described in the OT [Exod 30:2, 10]) could have only four “horns” or projections at the corners. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity. horns on the golden altar that is before God, 14 saying to the sixth angel, the one holding#tn Grk “having.” the trumpet, “Set free#tn On λῦσον (luson) BDAG 606-7 s.v. λύω 2 states, “set free, loose, untie – a. lit. a pers., animal, or thing that is bound or tied…Angels that are bound Rv 9:14f.” the four angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates!” 15 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision. the four angels who had been prepared for this#tn The Greek article τήν (thn) has been translated with demonstrative force here. hour, day,#tn The Greek term καί (kai) has not been translated here and before the following term “month” since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more. month, and year were set free to kill#tn Grk “so that they might kill,” but the English infinitive is an equivalent construction to indicate purpose here. a third of humanity. 16 The#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. number of soldiers on horseback was two hundred million;#tn Grk “twenty thousand of ten thousands.” I heard their number. 17 Now#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of the description of the horses and riders, which is somewhat parenthetical in the narrative. this is what the horses and their riders#tn Grk “and those seated on them.” looked like in my#tn Grk “the vision”; the Greek article has been translated as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215). vision: The riders had breastplates that were fiery red,#tn L&N 79.31 states, “‘fiery red’ (probably with a tinge of yellow or orange).” dark blue,#tn On this term BDAG 1022 s.v. ὑακίνθινος states, “hyacinth-colored, i.e. dark blue (dark red?) w. πύρινος Rv 9:17.” and sulfurous#tn On this term BDAG 446 s.v. θειώδης states, “sulphurous Rv 9:17.” yellow in color.#sn The colors of the riders’ breastplates parallel the three plagues of fire, smoke, and sulfur in v. 18. The#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. heads of the horses looked like lions’ heads, and fire, smoke, and sulfur#tn Traditionally, “brimstone.” came out of their mouths. 18 A third of humanity was killed by these three plagues, that is,#tn The phrase ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς καὶ τοῦ καπνοῦ καὶ τοῦ θείου τοῦ ἐκπορευομένου ἐκ τῶν στομάτων αὐτῶν (“by the fire, the smoke, and the sulfur that came out of their mouths”) is taken as epexegetical (explanatory) to the phrase τῶν τριῶν πληγῶν τούτων (“these three plagues”). by the fire, the smoke, and the sulfur that came out of their mouths. 19 For the power#tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.” of the horses resides#tn Grk “is.” in their mouths and in their tails, because their tails are like snakes, having heads that inflict injuries. 20 The rest of humanity, who had not been killed by these plagues, did not repent of the works of their hands, so that they did not stop worshiping demons and idols made#tn The word “made” is not in the Greek text but is implied. of gold, silver,#tn The Greek conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the following materials in this list, since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more. bronze, stone, and wood – idols that cannot see or hear or walk about. 21 Furthermore,#tn Grk “and.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation, with “furthermore” used to indicate a continuation of the preceding. they did not repent of their murders, of their magic spells,#tn On the term φαρμακεία (farmakeia, “magic spells”) see L&N 53.100: “the use of magic, often involving drugs and the casting of spells upon people – ‘to practice magic, to cast spells upon, to engage in sorcery, magic, sorcery.’ φαρμακεία: ἐν τῇ φαρμακείᾳ σου ἐπλανήθησαν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ‘with your magic spells you deceived all the peoples (of the world)’ Re 18:23.” of their sexual immorality, or of their stealing.