Clean and Unclean Land Animals
1The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron: 2“Tell the Israelites: You may eat # Lv 11:1-23; Dt 14:3-21; Dn 1:3-16; Ac 10:9-16; 11:3; Rm 14:2; Gl 2:11-14 all these kinds of land animals. # Dt 14:4-21; Ac 10:9-16; Rm 14:14 3You may eat any animal with divided hooves and that chews the cud. 4But among the ones that chew the cud or have divided hooves you are not to eat these:
the camel, # Gn 24:64; 31:34; Dt 14:7; Jr 2:23; Mt 19:24; 23:24; Mk 10:25; Lk 18:25 though it chews the cud,
does not have divided hooves — it is unclean for you;
5the hyrax, # A rabbit-like animal # Dt 14:7; Ps 104:18; Pr 30:26 though it chews the cud,
does not have hooves — it is unclean for you;
6the hare, though it chews the cud,
does not have hooves — it is unclean for you;
7the pig, though it has divided hooves,
does not chew the cud — it is unclean for you.
8Do not eat any of their meat or touch their carcasses — they are unclean for you. # Lv 7:21; 11:24-27; Is 52:11; 2Co 6:17
Clean and Unclean Aquatic Animals
9“This is what you may eat from all that is in the water: You may eat everything in the water that has fins and scales, whether in the seas or streams. 10But these are to be detestable to you: everything in the seas or streams that does not have fins and scales among all the swarming things and other living creatures # Gn 1:20; 2:19; Lv 11:46 in the water. 11They are to remain detestable to you; you must not eat any of their meat, and you must detest their carcasses. 12Everything in the water that does not have fins and scales will be detestable to you.
13“You are to detest these birds. They must not be eaten because they are detestable:
the eagle, # Or griffon-vulture # Dt 14:12; 28:49; 32:11; Pr 23:5; Is 40:31 the bearded # Or black vulture,
the black vulture, # Or the osprey, or the bearded vulture 14the kite, # Or hawk
any kind of falcon, # Or buzzards, or hawks # Dt 14:13; Jb 28:7
15every kind of raven, 16the ostrich, # Or eagle owl
the short-eared owl, # Or the night hawk, or the screech owl the gull, # Or long-eared owl
any kind of hawk, # Dt 14:15; Jb 39:26
17the little # Or tawny owl, the cormorant, # Or fisher owl, or pelican
the long-eared owl, # Or the ibis # Dt 14:16
18the white # Or little owl, the desert owl, # Or the pelican, or the horned owl # Dt 14:17; Ps 102:6; Is 34:11; Zph 2:14
the osprey, # Or Egyptian vulture 19the stork, # Or heron
any kind of heron, # Or cormorant, or hawk
the hoopoe, and the bat.
Clean and Unclean Flying Insects
20“All winged insects that walk on all fours are to be detestable to you. 21But you may eat these kinds of all the winged insects that walk on all fours: those that have jointed legs above their feet for hopping on the ground. 22You may eat these:
any kind of locust, # Dt 28:38 katydid, cricket, and grasshopper.
23All other winged insects that have four feet are to be detestable to you.
Purification after Touching Dead Animals
24“These will make you unclean. Whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean # Ezk 22:3-4; 23:17; 44:25; Mc 2:10; Hg 2:13 until evening, 25and whoever carries any of their carcasses must wash his clothes and will be unclean until evening. # Lv 16:28; 17:15-16; 22:6; Nm 19:7-10 26All animals that have hooves but do not have a divided hoof and do not chew the cud are unclean for you. Whoever touches them becomes unclean. 27All the four-footed animals # Rv 18:2 that walk on their paws are unclean for you. Whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean until evening, 28and anyone who carries their carcasses must wash his clothes and will be unclean until evening. They are unclean for you.
29“These creatures that swarm # Ex 8:3 on the ground are unclean for you:
the weasel, # Or mole rat, or rat the mouse, # 1Sm 6:4-5,11,18; Is 66:17
any kind of large lizard, # Or of thorn-tailed or dabb lizard, or of crocodile
30the gecko, the monitor lizard, # Or the spotted lizard, or the chameleon
the common lizard, # Or the gecko, or the newt, or the salamander the skink, # Or sand lizard, or newt, or snail
and the chameleon. # Or salamander, or mole
31These are unclean for you among all the swarming creatures. Whoever touches them when they are dead will be unclean until evening. 32When any one of them dies and falls on anything it becomes unclean — any item of wood, clothing, leather, sackcloth, # Gn 37:34 or any implement used for work. It is to be rinsed with water and will remain unclean until evening; then it will be clean. 33If any of them falls into any clay pot, everything in it will become unclean; you must break it. 34Any edible food # Lv 26:5 coming into contact with that unclean water will become unclean, and any drinkable liquid in any container will become unclean. 35Anything one of their carcasses falls on will become unclean. If it is an oven or stove, it must be smashed; it is unclean and will remain unclean for you. 36A spring or cistern containing water will remain clean, but someone who touches a carcass in it will become unclean. 37If one of their carcasses falls on any seed that is to be sown, it is clean; 38but if water has been put on the seed and one of their carcasses falls on it, it is unclean for you.
39“If one of the animals that you use for food dies, # Dies of itself or by predators; this does not apply to animals slaughtered for food. anyone who touches its carcass will be unclean until evening. 40Anyone who eats some of its carcass must wash his clothes and will be unclean until evening. Anyone who carries its carcass must wash his clothes and will be unclean until evening.
Unclean Swarming Creatures
41“All the creatures that swarm on the earth are detestable; they must not be eaten. 42Do not eat any of the creatures that swarm on the earth, anything that moves on its belly or walks on all fours or on many feet, # Lit fours, to anything multiplying pairs of feet for they are detestable. 43Do not become contaminated by any creature that swarms; do not become unclean or defiled by them. 44For I am Yahweh your God, # Nm 15:41 so you must consecrate yourselves # Ex 19:22; Lv 20:7; Nm 11:18; Ezk 38:23 and be holy because I am holy. # Lv 19:2; 20:7,26; 1Pt 1:16 You must not defile yourselves by any swarming creature that crawls on the ground. 45For I am Yahweh, who brought you up from the land of Egypt to be your God, # Ex 20:2; 6:7; Lv 25:38,42; 26:13,45 so you must be holy because I am holy. # Lv 21:8
46“This is the law concerning animals, birds, all living creatures that move in the water, and all creatures that swarm on the ground, 47in order to distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between the animals # Lv 26:6 that may be eaten and those that may not be eaten.”