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24
The Resurrection
1 Now on the first day#sn The first day of the week is the day after the Sabbath. of the week, at early dawn, the women#tn Grk “they”; the referent (the women mentioned in 23:55) has been specified in the translation for clarity. went to the tomb, taking the aromatic spices#tn On this term see BDAG 140-41 s.v. ἄρωμα. See also the note on “aromatic spices” in 23:56. they had prepared. 2 They#tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. found that the stone had been rolled away from the tomb,#sn Luke tells the story of the empty tomb with little drama. He simply notes that when they arrived the stone had been rolled away in a position where the tomb could be entered. This large stone was often placed in a channel so that it could be easily moved by rolling it aside. The other possibility is that it was merely placed over the opening in a position from which it had now been moved. 3 but when they went in, they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus.#tc The translation follows the much better attested longer reading here, “body of the Lord Jesus” (found in {Ì75 א A B C L W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 565 700 Ï}), rather than simply “the body” (found in D it) or “the body of Jesus” (found in 579 1241 pc). Further, although this is the only time that “Lord Jesus” occurs in Luke, it seems to be Luke’s normal designation for the Lord after his resurrection (note the many references to Christ in this manner in Acts, e.g., 1:21; 4:33; 7:59; 8:16; 11:17; 15:11; 16:31; 19:5; 20:21; 28:31). Although such a longer reading as this would normally be suspect, in this case some scribes, accustomed to Luke’s more abbreviated style, did not take the resurrection into account.sn What they found was not what they expected – an empty tomb. 4 While#tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. they were perplexed#tn Or “bewildered.” The term refers to a high state of confusion and anxiety. about this, suddenly#tn Grk “behold.” two men stood beside them in dazzling#sn The brilliantly shining clothing (dazzling attire) points to the fact that these are angels (see 24:23). attire. 5 The#tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. women#tn Grk “they”; the referent (the women) has been specified in the translation for clarity (the same has been done in v. 8). were terribly frightened#tn Or “They were extremely afraid.” and bowed#sn Bowed their faces to the ground. Such respect for angels is common: Dan 7:28; 10:9, 15. their faces to the ground, but the men said to them, “Why do you look for the living#sn By referring to Jesus as the living, the angels make it clear that he is alive. There should be no surprise. among the dead? 6 He is not here, but has been raised!#tc The phrase “He is not here, but has been raised” is omitted by a few mss (D it), but it has wide ms support and differs slightly from the similar statement in Matt 28:6 and Mark 16:6. Although NA27 places the phrase at the beginning of v. 6, as do most modern English translations, it is omitted from the RSV and placed at the end of v. 5 in the NRSV.tn The verb here is passive (ἠγέρθη, hgerqh). This “divine passive” (see ExSyn 437-38) points to the fact that Jesus was raised by God, and such activity by God is a consistent Lukan theological emphasis: Luke 20:37; 24:34; Acts 3:15; 4:10; 5:30; 10:40; 13:30, 37. A passive construction is also used to refer to Jesus’ exaltation: Luke 24:51; Acts 1:11, 22. Remember how he told you, while he was still in Galilee,#sn While he was still in Galilee looks back to the beginning of Jesus’ ministry. So the point is that this was announced long ago, and should come as no surprise. 7 that#tn Grk “saying that,” but this would be redundant in English. Although the translation represents this sentence as indirect discourse, the Greek could equally be taken as direct discourse: “Remember how he told you, while he was still in Galilee: ‘the Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and on the third day rise again.’” the Son of Man must be delivered#tn See Luke 9:22, 44; 13:33. into the hands of sinful men,#tn Because in the historical context the individuals who were primarily responsible for the death of Jesus (the Jewish leadership in Jerusalem in Luke’s view [see Luke 9:22]) would have been men, the translation “sinful men” for ἀνθρώπων ἁμαρτωλῶν (anqrwpwn Jamartwlwn) is retained here. and be crucified,#sn See the note on crucify in 23:21. and on the third day rise again.”#tn Here the infinitive ἀναστῆναι (anasthnai) is active rather than passive. 8 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. the women remembered his words,#sn On his words see Luke 9:22. 9 and when they returned from the tomb they told all these things to the eleven#sn Judas is now absent and “the twelve” have now become “the eleven.” Other disciples are also gathered with the remaining eleven. and to all the rest. 10 Now it was Mary Magdalene,#sn Mary Magdalene is always noted first in the appearance lists in the gospels. It is unusual that the first appearance would involve women as in this culture their role as witnesses would not be well accepted. It is a sign of the veracity of the account, because if an ancient were to create such a story he would never have it start with women. Joanna,#sn On Joanna see Luke 8:1-3. Mary the mother of James, and the other women with them who told these things to the apostles. 11 But these words seemed like pure nonsense#sn The term pure nonsense can describe idle talk or a tale. The point is important, since the disciples reacted with disbelief that a resurrection was possible. Sometimes it is thought the ancients were gullible enough to believe anything. But these disciples needed convincing about the resurrection. to them, and they did not believe them. 12 But Peter got up and ran to the tomb.#sn While the others dismissed the report of the women, Peter got up and ran to the tomb, for he had learned to believe in what the Lord had said. He bent down#sn In most instances the entrance to such tombs was less than 3 ft (1 m) high, so that an adult would have to bend down and practically crawl inside. and saw only the strips of linen cloth;#tn In the NT this term is used only for strips of cloth used to wrap a body for burial (LN 6.154; BDAG 693 s.v. ὀθόνιον). then he went home,#tn Or “went away, wondering to himself.” The prepositional phrase πρὸς ἑαυτόν (pros Jeauton) can be understood with the preceding verb ἀπῆλθεν (aphlqen) or with the following participle θαυμάζων (qaumazwn), but it more likely belongs with the former (cf. John 20:10, where the phrase can only refer to the verb). wondering#sn Peter’s wondering was not a lack of faith, but struggling in an attempt to understand what could have happened. what had happened.#tc Some Western mss (D it) lack 24:12. The verse has been called a Western noninterpolation, meaning that it reflects a shorter authentic reading in D and other Western witnesses. Many regard all such shorter readings as original (the verse is omitted in the RSV), but the ms evidence for omission is far too slight for the verse to be rejected as secondary. It is included in Ì75 and the rest of the ms tradition.
Jesus Walks the Road to Emmaus
13 Now#tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). that very day two of them#tn These are disciples as they know about the empty tomb and do not know what to make of it all. were on their way to a village called Emmaus, about seven miles#tn Grk “sixty stades” or about 11 kilometers. A stade (στάδιον, stadion) was a unit of distance about 607 feet (187 meters) long. from Jerusalem.#map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. 14 They#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. were talking to each other about all the things that had happened. 15 While#tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. they were talking and debating#tn This term suggests emotional dialogue and can thus be translated “debated.” these things,#tn The phrase “these things” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context. Jesus himself approached and began to accompany them 16 (but their eyes were kept#sn The two disciples will not be allowed to recognize Jesus until v. 31. from recognizing#tn This is an epexegetical (i.e., explanatory) infinitive in Greek. him).#sn This parenthetical remark by the author is necessary so the reader will understand the account. 17 Then#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. he said to them, “What are these matters#tn Grk “words,” but the term λόγος (logos) can refer to “matters” rather than only “words” (BDAG 600 s.v. 1.a.ε). you are discussing so intently#tn “Discussing so intently” translates the reciprocal idea conveyed by πρὸς ἀλλήλους (pro" allhlou"). The term ἀντιβάλλω (antiballw), used only here in the NT, has the nuance of “arguing” or “debating” a point (the English idiom “to exchange words” also comes close). as you walk along?” And they stood still, looking sad. 18 Then one of them, named Cleopas, answered him,#tn Grk “answering him, said.” This is redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation. “Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who doesn’t know#sn There is irony and almost a sense of mocking disbelief as the question “Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who doesn’t know the things that have happened there in these days?” comes to Jesus; but, of course, the readers know what the travelers do not. the things that have happened there#tn Grk “in it” (referring to the city of Jerusalem). in these days?” 19 He#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. said to them, “What things?” “The things concerning Jesus the Nazarene,” they replied, “a man#tn This translates the Greek term ἀνήρ (anhr). who, with his powerful deeds and words, proved to be a prophet#sn The role of Jesus as prophet is a function Luke frequently mentions: 4:25-27; 9:35; 13:31-35. before God and all the people; 20 and how our chief priests and rulers handed him over#sn Handed him over is another summary of the passion like Luke 9:22. to be condemned to death, and crucified#sn See the note on crucify in 23:21. him. 21 But we had hoped#tn The imperfect verb looks back to the view that they held during Jesus’ past ministry. that he was the one who was going to redeem#sn Their messianic hope concerning Jesus is expressed by the phrase who was going to redeem Israel. Israel. Not only this, but it is now the third day since these things happened. 22 Furthermore, some women of our group amazed us.#sn The account in 24:1-12 is repeated here, and it is clear that the other disciples were not convinced by the women, but could not explain the events either. They#tn In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence, but because of the length and complexity of the construction a new sentence was started here in the translation. were at the tomb early this morning, 23 and when they did not find his body, they came back and said they had seen a vision of angels,#sn The men in dazzling attire mentioned in v. 4 are identified as angels here. who said he was alive. 24 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. some of those who were with us went to the tomb, and found it just as the women had said, but they did not see him.”#tn Here the pronoun αὐτόν (auton), referring to Jesus, is in an emphatic position. The one thing they lacked was solid evidence that he was alive. 25 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the disciples’ inability to believe in Jesus’ resurrection. he said to them, “You#tn Grk “O,” an interjection used both in address and emotion (BDAG 1101 s.v. 1). foolish people#tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied to complete the interjection. – how slow of heart#sn The rebuke is for failure to believe the promise of scripture, a theme that will appear in vv. 43-47 as well. to believe#tn On the syntax of this infinitival construction, see BDAG 364-65 s.v. ἐπί 6.b. all that the prophets have spoken! 26 Wasn’t#tn This Greek particle (οὐχί, ouci) expects a positive reply. it necessary#sn The statement Wasn’t it necessary is a reference to the design of God’s plan (see Luke 24:7). Suffering must precede glory (see Luke 17:25). for the Christ#tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:11. to suffer these things and enter into his glory?” 27 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. beginning with Moses and all the prophets,#sn The reference to Moses and all the prophets is a way to say the promise of Messiah runs throughout OT scripture from first to last. he interpreted to them the things written about#tn Or “regarding,” “concerning.” “Written” is implied by the mention of the scriptures in context; “said” could also be used here, referring to the original utterances, but by now these things had been committed to writing. himself in all the scriptures.
28 So they approached the village where they were going. He acted as though he wanted to go farther,#sn He acted as though he wanted to go farther. This is written in a way that gives the impression Jesus knew they would ask him to stay. 29 but they urged him,#tn Grk “urged him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes, “saying”) has not been translated because it is redundant in contemporary English. “Stay with us, because it is getting toward evening and the day is almost done.” So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the disciples’ request. he went in to stay with them.
30 When#tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. he had taken his place at the table#tn Grk “had reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away. with them, he took the bread, blessed and broke it,#tn The pronoun “it” is not in the Greek text here or in the following clause, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context. and gave it to them. 31 At this point#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “At this point” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. “Then,” which is normally used to indicate this, would be redundant with the following clause. their eyes were opened and they recognized#sn They recognized him. Other than this cryptic remark, it is not told how the two disciples were now able to recognize Jesus. him.#tn This pronoun is somewhat emphatic. Then#tn This translates a καί (kai, “and”) that has clear sequential force. he vanished out of their sight. 32 They#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. said to each other, “Didn’t#tn This question uses a Greek particle (οὐχί, ouci) that expects a positive reply. our hearts#tn This is a collective singular use of the term καρδία (kardia), so each of their hearts were burning, a reference itself to the intense emotion of their response. burn within us#tc ‡ Most mss have the phrase ἐν ἡμῖν (en Jhmin, “within us”) after οὐχὶ ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν καιομένη ἦν (ouci Jh kardia Jhmwn kaiomenh hn, “Didn’t our hearts burn”). The phrase “within us” is lacking in some early mss (Ì75 B D c e sys,c). These early witnesses could have overlooked the words, since there are several occurrences of ἡμῖν in the context. But it seems likely that other scribes wanted to clarify the abrupt expression “Didn’t our hearts burn,” even as the translation has done here. NA27 includes the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.sn Even though it is most likely not original (see tc note above), the phrase within us has been included in the translation for clarity. while he was speaking with us on the road, while he was explaining#tn Grk “opening” (cf. Acts 17:3). the scriptures to us?” 33 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the Lord’s appearance to them. they got up that very hour and returned to Jerusalem.#map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. They#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. found the eleven and those with them gathered together 34 and#tn Here the word “and” has been supplied to make it clear that the disciples who had been to Emmaus found the eleven plus the others gathered and saying this. saying, “The Lord has really risen, and has appeared to Simon!”#sn The Lord…has appeared to Simon. Jesus had made another appearance besides the one on the road. The excitement was rising. Simon refers to Simon Peter. 35 Then they told what had happened on the road,#sn Now with the recounting of what had happened on the road two sets of witnesses corroborate the women’s report. and how they recognized him#tn Grk “how he was made known to them”; or “how he was recognized by them.” Here the passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation in keeping with contemporary English style. when he broke the bread.
Jesus Makes a Final Appearance
36 While they were saying these things, Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. himself stood among them and said to them, “Peace be with you.”#tc The words “and said to them, ‘Peace be with you’” are lacking in some Western mss (D it). But the clause is otherwise well attested, being found in Ì75 and the rest of the ms tradition, and should be considered an original part of Luke. 37 But they were startled and terrified, thinking#sn The disciples were still not comfortable at this point thinking that this could be Jesus raised from the dead. Instead they thought they saw a spirit. they saw a ghost.#tc This is not a reference to “a phantom” as read by the Western ms D. For πνεῦμα (pneuma) having the force of “ghost,” or “an independent noncorporeal being, in contrast to a being that can be perceived by the physical senses,” see BDAG 833-34 s.v. πνεῦμα 4. 38 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. he said to them, “Why are you frightened,#tn Or “disturbed,” “troubled.” and why do doubts#tn The expression here is an idiom; see BDAG 58 s.v. ἀναβαίνω 2. Here καρδία (kardia) is a collective singular; the expression has been translated as plural in English.sn Jesus calls the disciples to faith with a gentle rebuke about doubts and a gracious invitation to see for themselves the evidence of his resurrection. arise in your hearts? 39 Look at my hands and my feet; it’s me!#tn Grk “that it is I myself.” Touch me and see; a ghost#tn See tc note on “ghost” in v. 37. does not have flesh and bones like you see I have.” 40 When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.#tc Some Western mss (D it) lack 24:40. However, it is present in all other mss, including Ì75, and should thus be regarded as an original part of Luke’s Gospel. 41 And while they still could not believe it#sn They still could not believe it. Is this a continued statement of unbelief? Or is it a rhetorical expression of their amazement? They are being moved to faith, so a rhetorical force is more likely here. (because of their joy) and were amazed,#sn Amazement is the common response to unusual activity: 1:63; 2:18; 4:22; 7:9; 8:25; 9:43; 11:14; 20:26. he said to them, “Do you have anything here to eat?”#sn Do you have anything here to eat? Eating would remove the idea that a phantom was present. Angelic spirits refused a meal in Jdt 13:16 and Tob 12:19, but accepted it in Gen 18:8; 19:3 and Tob 6:6. 42 So#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ request for food. they gave him a piece of broiled fish, 43 and he took it and ate it in front of them.
Jesus’ Final Commission
44 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me#sn Everything written about me. The divine plan, events, and scripture itself are seen here as being one. in the law of Moses and the prophets and the psalms#sn For a similar threefold division of the OT scriptures, see the prologue to Sirach, lines 8-10, and from Qumran, the epilogue to 4QMMT, line 10. must be fulfilled.” 45 Then he opened their minds so they could understand the scriptures,#sn Luke does not mention specific texts here, but it is likely that many of the scriptures he mentioned elsewhere in Luke-Acts would have been among those he had in mind. 46 and said to them, “Thus it stands written that the Christ#tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.” would suffer#tn Three Greek infinitives are the key to this summary: (1) to suffer, (2) to rise, and (3) to be preached. The Christ (Messiah) would be slain, would be raised, and a message about repentance would go out into all the world as a result. All of this was recorded in the scripture. The remark shows the continuity between Jesus’ ministry, the scripture, and what disciples would be doing as they declared the Lord risen. and would rise from the dead on the third day, 47 and repentance#sn This repentance has its roots in declarations of the Old Testament. It is the Hebrew concept of a turning of direction. for the forgiveness of sins would be proclaimed#tn Or “preached,” “announced.” in his name to all nations,#sn To all nations. The same Greek term (τὰ ἔθνη, ta eqnh) may be translated “the Gentiles” or “the nations.” The hope of God in Christ was for all the nations from the beginning. beginning from Jerusalem.#sn Beginning from Jerusalem. See Acts 2, which is where it all starts.map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. 48 You are witnesses#sn You are witnesses. This becomes a key concept of testimony in Acts. See Acts 1:8. of these things. 49 And look, I am sending you#tn Grk “sending on you.” what my Father promised.#tn Grk “the promise of my Father,” with τοῦ πατρός (tou patros) translated as a subjective genitive. This is a reference to the Holy Spirit and looks back to how one could see Messiah had come with the promise of old (Luke 3:15-18). The promise is rooted in Jer 31:31 and Ezek 36:26. But stay in the city#sn The city refers to Jerusalem. until you have been clothed with power#sn Until you have been clothed with power refers to the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. What the Spirit supplies is enablement. See Luke 12:11-12; 21:12-15. The difference the Spirit makes can be seen in Peter (compare Luke 22:54-62 with Acts 2:14-41). from on high.”
Jesus’ Departure
50 Then#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. led them out as far as Bethany,#sn Bethany was village on the Mount of Olives about 2 mi (3 km) from Jerusalem; see John 11:1, 18. and lifting up his hands, he blessed them. 51 Now#tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. during the blessing#tn Grk “while he blessed them.” he departed#tn Grk “he departed from them.” and was taken up into heaven.#tc The reference to the ascension (“and was taken up into heaven”) is lacking in א* D it sys, but it is found in Ì75 and the rest of the ms tradition. The authenticity of the statement here seems to be presupposed in Acts 1:2, for otherwise it is difficult to account for Luke’s reference to the ascension there. For a helpful discussion, see TCGNT 162-63.tn For the translation of ἀνεφέρετο (anefereto) as “was taken up” see BDAG 75 s.v. ἀναφέρω 1.sn There is great debate whether this event equals Acts 1:9-11 so that Luke has telescoped something here that he describes in more detail later. The text can be read in this way because the temporal marker in v. 50 is vague. 52 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of Jesus’ ascension and the concluding summary of Luke’s Gospel. they worshiped#tc The reference to worship is lacking in the Western ms D, its last major omission in this Gospel. him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy,#sn Joy is another key theme for Luke: 1:14; 2:10; 8:13; 10:17; 15:7, 10; 24:41. 53 and were continually in the temple courts#tn Grk “in the temple.”sn Luke’s gospel story proper ends where it began, in the temple courts (Luke 1:4-22). The conclusion is open-ended, because the story continues in Acts with what happened from Jerusalem onwards, once the promise of the Father (v. 49) came. blessing#tc The Western text (D it) has αἰνοῦντες (ainounte", “praising”) here, while the Alexandrian mss (Ì75 א B C* L) have εὐλογοῦντες (eulogounte", “blessing”). Most mss, especially the later Byzantine mss, evidently combine these two readings with αἰνοῦντες καὶ εὐλογοῦντες (A C2 W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat). It is more difficult to decide between the two earlier readings. Internal arguments can go either way, but what seems decisive in this instance are the superior witnesses for εὐλογοῦντες. God.#tc The majority of Greek mss, some of which are important witnesses (A B C2 Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï lat), add “Amen” to note the Gospel’s end. Such a conclusion is routinely added by scribes to NT books because a few of these books originally had such an ending (cf. Rom 16:27; Gal 6:18; Jude 25). A majority of Greek witnesses have the concluding ἀμήν in every NT book except Acts, James, and 3 John (and even in these books, ἀμήν is found in some witnesses). It is thus a predictable variant. Further, since significant witnesses lack the word (Ì75 א C* D L W 1 33 pc it co ), it is evidently not original.