Jesus and Zacchaeus
1 Jesus#tn Grk “And entering, he passed through”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. entered Jericho#map For location see Map5-B2; Map6-E1; Map7-E1; Map8-E3; Map10-A2; Map11-A1. and was passing through it. 2 Now#tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new character. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). a man named Zacchaeus was there; he was a chief tax collector#sn This is the one place in the NT the office of chief tax collector is noted. He would organize the other tax collectors and collect healthy commissions (see also the note on the word tax collector in 3:12). and was rich. 3 He#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. was trying to get a look at Jesus,#tn Grk “He was trying to see who Jesus was.” but being a short man he could not see over the crowd.#tn Grk “and he was not able to because of the crowd, for he was short in stature.” 4 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Zacchaeus not being able to see over the crowd. he ran on ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree#sn A sycamore tree would have large branches near the ground like an oak tree and would be fairly easy to climb. These trees reach a height of some 50 ft (about 15 m). to see him, because Jesus#tn Grk “that one”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. was going to pass that way. 5 And when Jesus came to that place, he looked up#tc Most mss (A [D] W [Ψ] Ë13 33vid Ï latt) read “Jesus looking up, saw him and said.” The words “saw him and” are not in א B L T Θ Ë1 579 1241 2542 pc co. Both the testimony for the omission and the natural tendency toward scribal expansion argue for the shorter reading here. and said to him, “Zacchaeus, come down quickly,#tn Grk “hastening, come down.” σπεύσας (speusa") has been translated as a participle of manner. because I must#sn I must stay. Jesus revealed the necessity of his associating with people like Zacchaeus (5:31-32). This act of fellowship indicated acceptance. stay at your house today.”#sn On today here and in v. 9, see the note on today in 2:11. 6 So he came down quickly#tn Grk “hastening, he came down.” σπεύσας (speusas) has been translated as a participle of manner. and welcomed Jesus#tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. joyfully.#tn The participle χαίρων (cairwn) has been taken as indicating manner.sn Zacchaeus responded joyfully. Luke likes to mention joy as a response to what God was doing (1:14; 2:10; 10:20; 13:17; 15:5, 32; 19:37; 24:41, 52). 7 And when the people#tn Grk “they”; the referent is unspecified but is probably the crowd in general, who would have no great love for a man like Zacchaeus who had enriched himself many times over at their expense. saw it, they all complained,#tn This term is used only twice in the NT, both times in Luke (here and 15:2) and has negative connotations both times (BDAG 227 s.v. διαγογγύζω). The participle λέγοντες (legonte") is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. “He has gone in to be the guest of a man who is a sinner.”#sn Being the guest of a man who is a sinner was a common complaint about Jesus: Luke 5:31-32; 7:37-50; 15:1-2. 8 But Zacchaeus stopped and said to the Lord, “Look, Lord, half of my possessions I now give#sn Zacchaeus was a penitent man who resolved on the spot to act differently in the face of Jesus’ acceptance of him. In resolving to give half his possessions to the poor, Zacchaeus was not defending himself against the crowd’s charges and claiming to be righteous. Rather as a result of this meeting with Jesus, he was a changed individual. So Jesus could speak of salvation coming that day (v. 9) and of the lost being saved (v. 10). to the poor, and if#tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text. It virtually confesses fraud. I have cheated anyone of anything, I am paying back four times as much!” 9 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative Jesus said to him, “Today salvation#sn This is one of the few uses of the specific term salvation in Luke (1:69, 71, 77), though the concept runs throughout the Gospel. has come to this household,#sn The household is not a reference to the building, but to the people who lived within it (L&N 10.8). because he too is a son of Abraham!#sn Zacchaeus was personally affirmed by Jesus as a descendant (son) of Abraham and a member of God’s family. 10 For the Son of Man came#sn The Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost is Jesus’ mission succinctly defined. See Luke 15:1-32. to seek and to save the lost.”
The Parable of the Ten Minas
11 While the people were listening to these things, Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. proceeded to tell a parable, because he was near to Jerusalem,#map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. and because they thought#tn The present active infinitive δοκεῖν (dokein) has been translated as causal. that the kingdom of God#sn Luke means here the appearance of the full kingdom of God in power with the Son of Man as judge as Luke 17:22-37 describes. was going to#tn Or perhaps, “the kingdom of God must appear immediately (see L&N 71.36). appear immediately. 12 Therefore he said, “A nobleman#tn Grk “a man of noble birth” or “a man of noble status” (L&N 87.27). went to a distant country to receive#sn Note that the receiving of the kingdom takes place in the far country. This suggests that those in the far country recognize and acknowledge the king when his own citizens did not want him as king (v. 14; cf. John 1:11-12). for himself a kingdom and then return.#sn The background to this story about the nobleman who went…to receive for himself a kingdom had some parallels in the area’s recent history: Archelaus was appointed ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea in 4 b.c., but the people did not like him. Herod the Great also made a similar journey to Rome where he was crowned King of Judea in 40 b.c., although he was not able to claim his kingdom until 37 b.c. 13 And he summoned ten of his slaves,#tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2. gave them ten minas,#sn That is, one for each. A mina was a Greek monetary unit worth one hundred denarii or about four months’ wages for an average worker based on a six-day work week. and said to them, ‘Do business with these until I come back.’ 14 But his citizens#tn Or “subjects.” Technically these people were not his subjects yet, but would be upon his return. They were citizens of his country who opposed his appointment as their king; later the newly-appointed king will refer to them as his “enemies” (v. 27). hated#tn The imperfect is intense in this context, suggesting an ongoing attitude. him and sent a delegation after him, saying, ‘We do not want this man#tn Grk “this one” (somewhat derogatory in this context). to be king#tn Or “to rule.” over us!’ 15 When#tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. he returned after receiving the kingdom, he summoned#tn Grk “he said for these slaves to be called to him.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one and simplified to “he summoned.” these slaves to whom he had given the money. He wanted#tn Grk “in order that he might know” (a continuation of the preceding sentence). Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he” as subject and the verb “wanted” to convey the idea of purpose. to know how much they had earned#sn The Greek verb earned refers to profit from engaging in commerce and trade (L&N 57.195). This is an examination of stewardship. by trading. 16 So#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the royal summons. the first one came before him and said, ‘Sir,#tn Or “Lord”; or “Master.” (and so throughout this paragraph). your mina#tn See the note on the word “minas” in v. 13. has made ten minas more.’ 17 And the king#tn Grk “he”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity. said to him, ‘Well done, good slave! Because you have been faithful#tn See Luke 16:10. in a very small matter, you will have authority#sn The faithful slave received expanded responsibility (authority over ten cities) as a result of his faithfulness; this in turn is an exhortation to faithfulness for the reader. over ten cities.’ 18 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. the second one came and said, ‘Sir, your mina has made five minas.’ 19 So#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the second slave’s report. the king#tn Grk “he”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity. said to him, ‘And you are to be over five cities.’ 20 Then another#sn Though ten were given minas, the story stops to focus on the one who did nothing with the opportunity given to him. Here is the parable’s warning about the one who does not trust the master. This figure is called “another,” marking him out as different than the first two. slave#tn The word “slave” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for stylistic reasons. came and said, ‘Sir, here is#tn Grk “behold.” your mina that I put away for safekeeping#tn Or “that I stored away.” L&N 85.53 defines ἀπόκειμαι (apokeimai) here as “to put something away for safekeeping – ‘to store, to put away in a safe place.’” in a piece of cloth.#tn The piece of cloth, called a σουδάριον (soudarion), could have been a towel, napkin, handkerchief, or face cloth (L&N 6.159). 21 For I was afraid of you, because you are a severe#tn Or “exacting,” “harsh,” “hard.” man. You withdraw#tn Grk “man, taking out.” The Greek word can refer to withdrawing money from a bank (L&N 57.218), and in this context of financial accountability that is the most probable meaning. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “you” as subject and translating the participle αἴρεις (airei") as a finite verb. what you did not deposit#tn The Greek verb τίθημι (tiqhmi) can be used of depositing money with a banker to earn interest (L&N 57.217). In effect the slave charges that the master takes what he has not earned. and reap what you did not sow.’ 22 The king#tn Grk “He”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity. said to him, ‘I will judge you by your own words,#tn Grk “out of your own mouth” (an idiom). you wicked slave!#tn Note the contrast between this slave, described as “wicked,” and the slave in v. 17, described as “good.” So you knew, did you, that I was a severe#tn Or “exacting,” “harsh,” “hard.” man, withdrawing what I didn’t deposit and reaping what I didn’t sow? 23 Why then didn’t you put#tn That is, “If you really feared me why did you not do a minimum to get what I asked for?” my money in the bank,#tn Grk “on the table”; the idiom refers to a place where money is kept or managed, or credit is established, thus “bank” (L&N 57.215). so that when I returned I could have collected it with interest?’ 24 And he said to his attendants,#tn Grk “to those standing by,” but in this context involving an audience before the king to give an accounting, these would not be casual bystanders but courtiers or attendants. ‘Take the mina from him, and give it to the one who has ten.’#tn Grk “the ten minas.” 25 But#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. Those watching the evaluation are shocked, as the one with the most gets even more. The word “already” is supplied at the end of the statement to indicate this surprise and shock. they said to him, ‘Sir, he has ten minas already!’#tc A few mss (D W 69 pc and a few versional witnesses) omit this verse either to harmonize it with Matt 25:28-29 or to keep the king’s speech seamless. 26 ‘I tell you that everyone who has will be given more,#tn Grk “to everyone who has, he will be given more.” sn Everyone who has will be given more. Again, faithfulness yields great reward (see Luke 8:18; also Matt 13:12; Mark 4:25). but from the one who does not have, even what he has will be taken away.#sn The one who has nothing has even what he seems to have taken away from him, ending up with no reward at all (see also Luke 8:18). The exact force of this is left ambiguous, but there is no comfort here for those who are pictured by the third slave as being totally unmoved by the master. Though not an outright enemy, there is no relationship to the master either. Three groups are represented in the parable: the faithful of various sorts (vv. 16, 18); the unfaithful who associate with Jesus but do not trust him (v. 21); and the enemies (v. 27). 27 But as for these enemies of mine who did not want me to be their king,#tn Grk “to rule over them.” bring them here and slaughter#tn This term, when used of people rather than animals, has some connotations of violence and mercilessness (L&N 20.72). them#sn Slaughter them. To reject the king is to face certain judgment from him. in front of me!’”
The Triumphal Entry
28 After Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. had said this, he continued on ahead,#tn This could mean “before [his disciples],” but that is slightly more awkward, requiring an elided element (the disciples) to be supplied. going up to Jerusalem.#sn This is yet another travel note on the journey to Jerusalem. See also Luke 18:31; 19:11. Jesus does not actually enter Jerusalem until 19:45.map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. 29 Now#tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. when he approached Bethphage#sn The exact location of the village of Bethphage is not known. Most locate it on the southeast side of the Mount of Olives and northwest of Bethany, about 1.5 miles (3 km) east of Jerusalem. and Bethany, at the place called the Mount of Olives,#tn Grk “at the mountain called ‘of Olives.’” This form of reference is awkward in contemporary English, so the more familiar “Mount of Olives” has been used in the translation.sn “Mountain” in English generally denotes a higher elevation than it often does in reference to places in Palestine. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 1.8 mi (3 km) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it. he sent two of the disciples, 30 telling them,#tn Grk “saying.” “Go to the village ahead of you.#tn Grk “the village lying before [you]” (BDAG 530 s.v. κατέναντι 2.a). When#tn Grk “in which entering.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in Greek, but because of the length and complexity of the construction a new sentence was started here in the translation. you enter it, you will find a colt tied there that has never been ridden.#tn Grk “a colt tied there on which no one of men has ever sat.” Untie it and bring it here. 31 If anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ just say, ‘The Lord needs#sn The custom called angaria allowed the impressment of animals for service to a significant figure. it.’” 32 So those who were sent ahead found#tn Grk “sent ahead and went and found.” it exactly#sn Exactly as he had told them. Nothing in Luke 19-23 catches Jesus by surprise. Often he directs the action. as he had told them. 33 As#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. they were untying the colt, its owners asked them,#tn Grk “said to them.” “Why are you untying that colt?” 34 They replied, “The Lord needs it.” 35 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. they brought it to Jesus, threw their cloaks#tn Grk “garments”; but this refers in context to their outer cloaks. The action is like 2 Kgs 9:13. on the colt,#sn See Zech 9:9. and had Jesus get on#tn Although ἐπεβίβασαν (epebibasan) is frequently translated “set [Jesus] on it” or “put [Jesus] on it,” when used of a riding animal the verb can mean “to cause to mount” (L&N 15.98); thus here “had Jesus get on it.” The degree of assistance is not specified. it. 36 As#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. he rode along, they#tn The disciples initiated this action (since in 19:35 and 37 they are the subject) but the other gospels indicate the crowds also became involved. Thus it is difficult to specify the referent here as “the disciples” or “people.” spread their cloaks on the road. 37 As he approached the road leading down from#tn Grk “the descent of”; this could refer to either the slope of the hillside itself or the path leading down from it (the second option has been adopted for the translation, see L&N 15.109). the Mount of Olives,#sn See the note on the name Mount of Olives in v. 29. the whole crowd of his#tn Grk “the”; the Greek article has been translated here as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215). disciples began to rejoice#tn Here the participle χαίροντες (caironte") has been translated as a finite verb in English; it could also be translated adverbially as a participle of manner: “began to praise God joyfully.” and praise#sn See 2:13, 20; Acts 2:47; 3:8-9. God with a loud voice for all the mighty works#tn Or “works of power,” “miracles.” Jesus’ ministry of miracles is what has drawn attention. See Luke 7:22. they had seen:#tn Grk “they had seen, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. 38 “Blessed is the king#sn Luke adds the title king to the citation from Ps 118:26 to make clear who was meant (see Luke 18:38). The psalm was used in looking for the deliverance of the end, thus leading to the Pharisees’ reaction. who comes in the name of the Lord!#sn A quotation from Ps 118:26. Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!” 39 But#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. Not all present are willing to join in the acclamation. some of the Pharisees#sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17. in the crowd said to him, “Teacher, rebuke your disciples.”#sn Teacher, rebuke your disciples. The Pharisees were complaining that the claims were too great. 40 He answered,#tn Grk “and answering, he said.” This has been simplified in the translation to “He answered.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. “I tell you, if they#tn Grk “these.” keep silent, the very stones#sn This statement amounts to a rebuke. The idiom of creation speaking means that even creation knows what is taking place, yet the Pharisees miss it. On this idiom, see Gen 4:10 and Hab 2:11. will cry out!”
Jesus Weeps for Jerusalem under Judgment
41 Now#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. when Jesus#tn Grk “he.” approached#sn When Jesus approached and saw the city. This is the last travel note in Luke’s account (the so-called Jerusalem journey), as Jesus approached and saw the city before entering it. and saw the city, he wept over it, 42 saying, “If you had only known on this day,#sn On this day. They had missed the time of Messiah’s coming; see v. 44. even you, the things that make for peace!#tn Grk “the things toward peace.” This expression seems to mean “the things that would ‘lead to,’ ‘bring about,’ or ‘make for’ peace.” But now they are hidden#sn But now they are hidden from your eyes. This becomes an oracle of doom in the classic OT sense; see Luke 13:31-35; 11:49-51; Jer 9:2; 13:7; 14:7. They are now blind and under judgment (Jer 15:5; Ps 122:6). from your eyes. 43 For the days will come upon you when your enemies will build#sn Jesus now predicted the events that would be fulfilled in the fall of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. The details of the siege have led some to see Luke writing this after Jerusalem’s fall, but the language of the verse is like God’s exilic judgment for covenant unfaithfulness (Hab 2:8; Jer 6:6, 14; 8:13-22; 9:1; Ezek 4:2; 26:8; Isa 29:1-4). Specific details are lacking and the procedures described (build an embankment against you) were standard Roman military tactics. an embankment#sn An embankment refers to either wooden barricades or earthworks, or a combination of the two. against you and surround you and close in on you from every side. 44 They will demolish you#tn Grk “They will raze you to the ground.” sn The singular pronoun you refers to the city of Jerusalem personified. – you and your children within your walls#tn Grk “your children within you.” The phrase “[your] walls” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the city of Jerusalem, metaphorically pictured as an individual, is spoken of here. – and they will not leave within you one stone#sn (Not) one stone on top of another is an idiom for total destruction. on top of another,#tn Grk “leave stone on stone.” because you did not recognize the time of your visitation from God.”#tn Grk “the time of your visitation.” To clarify what this refers to, the words “from God” are supplied at the end of the verse, although they do not occur in the Greek text.sn You did not recognize the time of your visitation refers to the time God came to visit them. They had missed the Messiah; see Luke 1:68-79.
Cleansing the Temple
45 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Jesus#tn Grk “he.” entered the temple courts#tn Grk “the temple” (also in v. 47).sn The merchants (those who were selling things there) would have been located in the Court of the Gentiles. and began to drive out those who were selling things there,#sn Matthew (21:12-27), Mark (11:15-19) and Luke (here, 19:45-46) record this incident of the temple cleansing at the end of Jesus’ ministry. John (2:13-16) records a cleansing of the temple at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry. See the note on the word temple courts in John 2:14 for a discussion of the relationship of these accounts to one another. 46 saying to them, “It is written, ‘My house will be a house of prayer,’#sn A quotation from Isa 56:7. but you have turned it into a den#tn Or “a hideout” (see L&N 1.57). of robbers!”#sn A quotation from Jer 7:11. The meaning of Jesus’ statement about making the temple courts a den of robbers probably operates here at two levels. Not only were the religious leaders robbing the people financially, but because of this they had also robbed them spiritually by stealing from them the opportunity to come to know God genuinely. It is possible that these merchants had recently been moved to this location for convenience.
47 Jesus#tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. was teaching daily in the temple courts. The chief priests and the experts in the law#tn Grk “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21. and the prominent leaders among the people were seeking to assassinate#tn Grk “to destroy.”sn The action at the temple was the last straw. In their view, if Jesus could cause trouble in the holy place, then he must be stopped, so the leaders were seeking to assassinate him. him, 48 but#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. they could not find a way to do it,#tn Grk “they did not find the thing that they might do.” for all the people hung on his words.#sn All the people hung on his words is an idiom for intent, eager listening. Jesus’ popularity and support made it unwise for the leadership to seize him.