Cyfieithiad Urdd y Graddedigion 1921-45 (T.N., Hosea ac Amos) (CUG)

Cymraeg [Welsh, Galés]

Leggi questa versione: Cyfieithiad Urdd y Graddedigion 1921-45 (T.N., Hosea ac Amos)

Cyfieithiad Urdd y Graddedigion

Yn 1918 ffurfiodd cyn-fyfyrwyr Prifysgol Cymru, sef Urdd Graddedigion Prifysgol Cymru, Adran Ddiwinyddol. Eu bwriad oedd cynhyrchu Geiriadur Beiblaidd a chyfieithiad newydd o'r Beibl. Teimlid fod angen cyfieithiad newydd oherwydd y llawysgrifau newydd a ddarganfuwyd, ysgolheictod newydd a'r newidiadau i'r iaith Gymraeg ers 1620. Rhannwyd y gwaith rhwng pwyllgorau cyfieithu a sefydlwyd ym Mangor, Aberystwyth, y Bala, Llanbedr-pont-steffan ac Abertawe. Pan oedd adran wedi ei gyfieithu fe'i cyhoeddwyd fel llyfryn bach.

Hen Destament

Hosea ac Amos oedd yr unig ddau lyfr o'r Hen Destament a gyfieithwyd. Cyfieithwyd hwy o'r Hebraeg, gan gyfeirio at y Roeg, Syrieg a'r Lladin ble roedd y testun yn anodd. Cyhoeddwyd y rhain gyda'i gilydd ym 1924.

Testament Newydd

Cyhoeddwyd Efengyl Marc yn 1921; Iago a Galatiaid yn 1922; Llyfr yr Actau yn 1925; 1 Corinthiaid yn 1926; Efengyl Ioan yn 1927; Philipiaid yn 1928; Hebreaid yn 1932; Effesiaid yn 1933; yr Epistolau Bugeiliol (1 a 2 Timotheus and Titus), yn 1935; 1 a 2 Thessaloniaid ac Epistolau Ioan yn 1940, a Rhufeiniaid yn 1941. Yna cyhoeddwyd Datguddiad, 1 a 2 Pedr a Jwdas gyda'i gilydd yn 1943. Cyhoeddwyd Efengyl Luc ym Medi 1943. Efengyl Matthew a 2 Corinthiaid yn 1944, ac yn olaf Colosiaid a Philemon yn 1945. Dyna pryd y cwblhawyd y Testament Newydd. Ni chyhoeddwyd unrhyw lyfrynnau ar ôl hynny.

Hanes

Roedd y cyfieithiad yn brosiect gwych, ond ni lwyddodd i ennill poblogrwydd gan iddo ymddangos mewn cyfres o lyfrynnau gyhoeddwyd yn afreolaidd ac heb fod mewn unrhyw drefn benodol, a hynny dros gyfnod o chwarter canrif. Y cynllun gwreiddiol oedd adolygu a chysoni'r cwbl yn un cyfieithiad newydd, ond ni ddigwyddodd hynny erioed.

Yn ogystal a nifer o ysgolheigion beiblaidd amlwg o'r cyfnod, roedd nifer o lenorion ac ysgolheigion llenyddol adnabyddus wedi bod a rhan yn y prosiect, gan gynnwys John Morris Jones, Ifor Williams, Saunders Lewis, T.H. Parry-Williams, T. Gwynn Jones, W.J. Gruffydd ac R.T. Jenkins. 

Fersiwn Digidol

Cafodd yr eitemau hyn eu digideiddio yn 2021, o lyfrynnau gwreiddiol sydd yng nghasgliad Cymdeithas y Beibl yn Llyfrgell Caergrawnt. Rhan o brosiect Digideiddio Ysgrythurau Cymraeg Cymdeithas y Beibl. Mae Cyfieithiad Urdd y Graddedigion (CUG) yn dod a chynnwys y llyfrynau i gyd at ei gilydd yn ddigidol. Cadwyd y testun fel yr oedd yn y llyfrynnau gwreiddiol, ond mae'r byrfoddau a ddefnyddir yn y croes-gyfeiriadau wedi eu cysoni.

English: 

Guild of Graduates Translation

In 1918 the University of Wales alumni, called the Guild of Graduates , formed a Theological Section. This committed to produce a Bible Dictionary called Geiriadur Beiblaidd, and a new translation of the Bible. A new translation was desired because of new manuscript finds, new scholarship and changes in the Welsh language since 1620. The work was divided between translation committees which were established at Bangor, Aberystwyth, Bala, Lampeter and Swansea. Once each portion was translated it was published in instalments as small booklets.

Old Testament

An attempt to translate the Old Testament only resulted in the translation of Hosea and Amos. These were translated from Hebrew, and by reference to Greek, Syriac and Latin in difficult verses. These were published together in 1924.

New Testament

The Gospel of Mark was published in 1921; James and Galatians in 1922; Acts in 1925; 1 Corinthians in 1926; the Gospel of John in 1927; Philippians in 1928; Hebrews in 1932; Ephesians in 1933; the Pastoral Epistles (1 and 2 Timothy and Titus), were published in 1935; 1 and 2 Thessalonians and the 3 Epistles of John were published in 1940, and Romans in 1941. The Revelation of John, 1 and 2 Peter and Jude were all published together in 1943. Luke was published in September 1943. Matthew and 2 Corinthians were published in 1944. Colossians and Philemon were published in 1945. These completed the New Testament. After that no more booklets were translated.

Legacy

The translation was a noble project, but never achieved great popularity. This is because it appeared in a series of booklets, which were not in any particular order, and which were published at irregular intervals over a quarter of a century. The original plan was to revise and harmonise all the editions into a new combined translation but this never happened.

As well as a number of prominent biblical scholars of the period, several well-known writers and literary scholars were involved in the project, including John Morris Jones, Ifor Williams, Saunders Lewis, T.H. Parry-Williams, T. Gwynn Jones, W.J. Gruffydd and R.T. Jenkins. 

Digital Edition

These items were digitised in 2021, from originals in the Bible Society collection at Cambridge. This was done as part of the Bible Society's Welsh Scriptures Digitisation Project. Cyfieithiad Urdd y Graddedigion (CUG) brings all these portions together in digital form for the first time. The text has not been changed, but the cross-references have been harmonised to use consistent book abbreviations. 

Editore

British & Foreign Bible Society

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