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Human Traditions and God’s Commandments
1 And the Pharisees and some of the scribes who had come from Jerusalem gathered to him. 2And they saw that some of his disciples were eating their#Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun bread with unclean—that is, unwashed—hands. 3(For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they wash their hands ritually,#Literally “with the fist”; although the exact meaning of the phrase is uncertain, there is general agreement it has to do with the ritual or ceremonial nature of the handwashing thus#*Here “thus” is supplied as a component of the participle (“holding fast to”) which is understood as result holding fast to the traditions of the elders. 4And when they come#The phrase “when they come” is not in the Greek text but is implied from the marketplace, they do not eat unless they wash. And there are many other traditions#*The word “traditions” is not in the Greek text but is implied which they have received and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“have received”) has been translated as a finite verb hold fast to—for example,#The phrase “for example” is not in the Greek text but is supplied as a clarification in the English translation the washing of cups and pitchers and bronze kettles and dining couches.)#Several important manuscripts omit “and dining couches” 5And the Pharisees and the scribes asked him, “Why do your disciples not live according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their#Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun bread with unclean hands?” 6So he said to them, “Isaiah prophesied correctly about you hypocrites, as it is written,
‘This people honors me with their#Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun lips,
but their heart is far, far away from me.
7And they worship me in vain,
teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’#A quotation from Isa 29:13
8Abandoning the commandment of God, you hold fast to the tradition of men.”
9And he said to them, “You splendidly ignore the commandment of God so that you can keep#Some manuscripts have “you can maintain” your tradition. 10For Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother,’#A quotation from Exod 20:12; Deut 5:16 and, ‘The one who speaks evil of father or mother must certainly die#Literally “let him die the death”.’#A quotation from Exod 21:17; Lev 20:9 11But you say, ‘If a man says to his#Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun father or to his#Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun mother, “Whatever benefit you would have received#Literally “you would have been benefited” from me is corban#A Hebrew term referring to something consecrated as a gift to God and thus not available for ordinary use (that is, a gift to God), 12you no longer permit him to do anything for his#Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun father or his#Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun mother, 13thus#*Here “thus” is supplied as a component of the participle (“making void”) which is understood as result making void the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down, and you do many similar things such as this.”
Defilement from Within
14And summoning the crowd again, he said to them, “Listen to me, all of you, and understand: 15There is nothing outside of a person that is able to defile him by#*Here “by” is supplied as a component of the participle (“going”) which is understood as means going into him. But the things that go out of a person are the things that defile a person.”#Most later manuscripts add v. 16, “If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.” 17And when he entered into the house away from the crowd, his disciples asked him about the parable. 18And he said to them, “So are you also without understanding? Do you not understand that everything that is outside that goes into a person is not able to defile him? 19For it does not enter into his heart but into his#Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun stomach, and goes out into the latrine”—thus#*Here “thus” is supplied as a component of the participle (“declaring”) which is understood as result declaring all foods clean. 20And he said, “What comes out of a person, that defiles a person. 21For from within, from the heart of people, come evil plans, sexual immoralities, thefts, murders, 22adulteries, acts of greed, malicious deeds, deceit, licentiousness, envy,#Literally “the evil eye” abusive speech, pride, foolishness. 23All these evil things come from within and defile a person.”
A Syrophoenician Woman’s Great Faith
24And from there he set out and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“set out”) has been translated as a finite verb went to the region of Tyre. And when he#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“entered”) which is understood as temporal entered into a house, he wanted no one to know, and yet he was not able to escape notice. 25But immediately a woman whose young daughter was possessed by an unclean spirit, when she#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“heard”) which is understood as temporal heard about him, came and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“came”) has been translated as a finite verb fell down at his feet, 26Now the woman was a Greek—a Syrophoenician by nationality—and she was asking him that he would expel the demon from her daughter. 27And he said to her, “Let the children be satisfied first, for it is not right to take the children’s bread and throw it#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation to the dogs!” 28But she answered and said to him, “Lord, even the dogs under the table eat the children’s crumbs.” 29And he said to her, “Because of this statement, go! The demon has gone out of your daughter.” 30And when she#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“went”) which is understood as temporal went to her home, she found the child lying on the bed and the demon gone.
A Man Deaf and Unable to Speak Healed
31And again he went away from the region of Tyre and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“went away”) has been translated as a finite verb came through Sidon to the Sea of Galilee, within the region of the Decapolis. 32And they brought to him a man who was deaf and had difficulty speaking, and they were imploring him that he would place his#Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun hand on him. 33And he took him away from the crowd by himself and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“took … away”) has been translated as a finite verb put his fingers into his ears, and after#*Here “after” is supplied as a component of the participle (“spitting”) which is understood as temporal spitting, he touched his tongue. 34And looking up to heaven, he sighed and said to him, “Ephphatha!” (that is, “Be opened!”). 35And#Some manuscripts have “And immediately” his ears were opened and his difficulty in speaking was removed#Literally “the bond of his tongue was loosened” and he began to speak normally. 36And he ordered them that they should say nothing, but as much as he ordered them not to, they proclaimed it#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation even more instead. 37And they were amazed beyond all measure, saying, “He has done all things well! He even makes the deaf hear and the mute speak!”
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