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The Sabbath Year
1Then#Or “And” Yahweh spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai,#Literally “the mountain of Sinai” saying, 2“Speak to the Israelites,#Literally “sons/children of Israel” and say to them, ‘When you#Plural come into the land that I am about to give to you,#Plural then#Or “and” the land shall observe a Sabbath for Yahweh. 3Six years you#Singular throughout this verse shall sow your field, and six years you shall prune your vineyard, and you shall gather its yield. 4But#Or “And” in the seventh year it shall be a Sabbath of complete rest#Literally “a Sabbath of ‘Sabbathation.’ ” “Sabbathation” is not a real word, but it is devised as an attempt to convey the sounds of the related nouns in the Hebrew phrase for the land—a Sabbath for Yahweh; you#Singular throughout this verse must not sow your field, and you must not prune your vineyard. 5You#Singular throughout this verse must not reap your harvest’s aftergrowth, and you must not harvest the grapes of your unpruned vines—it shall be a year of complete rest#Literally “a year of a rest period” for the land. 6And a Sabbath of the land shall be for food for you:#Plural for you#Singular here and through the rest of this verse and for your slave and for your slave woman and for your hired worker and for your temporary residents#Collective singular; Hebrew “temporary resident” who are dwelling as aliens with you; 7and all its yield shall be for your#Singular throughout this verse domestic animal and for the wild animal, which are in your land to eat.
The Year of Jubilee
8“ ‘And you#Singular throughout this verse shall count for yourself seven Sabbaths of years, seven times seven years, and they shall be for you time periods of#Literally “days of” years: forty-nine#Literally “nine and forty” years. 9And you#Singular shall cause a loud horn blast#Literally “a ram’s horn of a blast” to be heard on the seventh month on the tenth of the month; on the Day of Atonement you#Plural shall cause a ram’s horn to be heard in all your#Plural land. 10And you#Plural throughout this verse shall consecrate the fiftieth year, and you shall proclaim a release in the land for all its inhabitants. It is a Jubilee; it shall be for you, and you shall return. You must return—everyone to his property and everyone to his clan.#Or “each of you must return to his property and to his clan” 11You#Plural throughout this verse shall have the fiftieth year as a Jubilee;#Literally “a Jubilee it the year of the fiftieth year it shall be for you” you must not reap its aftergrowth, and you must not harvest its unpruned vines. 12Because it is a Jubilee, it shall be holy to you. You must eat its#That is, the field’s produce from the field.
13“ ‘In this Year of Jubilee each of you#Plural shall return#Literally “you shall return a man” or “you shall return everyone” to his property. 14And when you#Plural sell something to your#Singular fellow citizen or you buy from your#Singular neighbor’s hand, you#Plural must not oppress one another.#Literally “a man his brother” 15You#Singular throughout this verse must buy from your fellow citizen according to the number of years after the Jubilee; he must sell to you according to the number of years of yield. 16You#Singular throughout this verse must increase its price according to a greater number of years,#Literally “to the mouth of many of the years” but#Or “and” you must decrease its price according to a lesser number of years,#Literally “to the mouth of few of the years” because he is selling its yields to you. 17And you#Plural must not oppress one another,#Literally “a man his citizen” but#Or “and” you#Singular shall revere your God, because I am Yahweh, your#Plural God.
18“ ‘And you#Plural throughout this verse shall do my statutes, and you must keep my regulations, and you shall do them, so that#Or “and” you shall live securely#Literally “with confidence” on the land. 19And the land shall give its fruit, and you#Plural throughout this verse shall eat your fill,#Literally “to contentment” and you shall live securely#Literally “with confidence” on it. 20And if you#Plural should say, “What shall we eat in the seventh year, if#Literally “look” we do not sow and we do not gather its yield?” 21then#Or “and” I will command my blessing for you#Plural in the sixth year, so that#Or “and” it will make#Or “produce” the yield for three years. 22And you#Plural throughout this verse will sow in the eighth year, and you shall eat from the old yield;#The verse divides here until the ninth year, until the coming of its yield, you shall eat the old yield.
23“ ‘But#Or “And” the land must not be sold in#Or “for” perpetuity, because the land is mine, because you#Plural are aliens and temporary residents with me. 24And in all your#Plural property’s land you#Plural must provide redemption for the land.
25“ ‘When your#Singular brother becomes poor and he sells part of his property, then#Or “and” his nearest redeemer#Literally “his redeemer the nearest to him” shall come, and he shall redeem the thing sold by his brother. 26But#Or “And” if#Or “when” a man does not have#Literally “it is not for him” a redeemer, then#Or “and” he prospers#Literally “his hand produces” and he finds enough for his redemption, 27then#Or “and” he shall calculate the years of its selling, and he shall refund the balance to the man to whom he sold it, and he shall return to his property. 28But#Or “And” if his hand does not find enough to refund to him, then#Or “and” what he has sold#Literally “his thing sold” shall be in the buyer’s hand until the Year of Jubilee; and it shall go out of the buyer’s hand#Meaning derived from context; an alternative translation could be “shall not be released” (cf. NKJV, NRSV, ESV, NJPS) or “shall not revert” (NASB, NET) in the Jubilee, and he shall return to his property.
29“ ‘And if a man sells a residential house in a walled city,#Literally “a house of a dwelling of a city wall” then#Or “and” it shall be his redemption until completing a year after his selling;#Literally “a year of his selling” its redemption shall last#Literally “shall be” a year.#Literally “days” 30But#Or “And” if it is not redeemed before a full year has passed,#Literally “until the fulfilling of for him/it an entire year” then#Or “and” the house that is in the walled city#Literally “in the city that for it a wall” shall belong to the buyer in#Hebrew “for” perpetuity throughout his generations; it shall not go out of the buyer’s hand#Meaning derived from context; an alternative translation could be “shall not be released” (cf. NKJV, NRSV, ESV, NJPS) or “shall not revert” (NASB, NET) in the Jubilee. 31However,#Or “And” or “But” village houses that have no surrounding wall shall be considered open country;#Literally “the field of the land” there is redemption for it, and in the Jubilee it shall go out of the buyer’s hand.#Meaning derived from context; an alternative translation could be “shall not be released” (cf. NKJV, NRSV, ESV, NJPS) or “shall not revert” (NASB, NET)
32“ ‘As for#Or “And” the cities of the Levites, that is, the houses in#Hebrew “of” their property’s cities, it shall be a lasting redemption#Or “a permanent redemption”; literally “redemption of eternity” or “redemption of long duration” for the Levites. 33And whatever anyone redeems from the Levites then#Or “and” must go out of the buyer’s hand#Meaning derived from context; an alternative translation could be “shall not be released” (cf. NKJV, NRSV, ESV, NJPS) or “shall not revert” (NASB, NET) in the Jubilee, including a house’s selling in his city’s property,#Literally “the city of his property” because the houses in#Hebrew “of” the cities of the Levites are their property in the midst of the Israelites.#Literally “sons/children of Israel” 34But#Or “And” a#Hebrew “the” field of their cities’ pastureland must not be sold, because it is their property for all time.#Literally “a property of eternity it is for them” or “a property of long duration it is for them”
35“ ‘And if your#Singular throughout this verse countryman#Or “brother” becomes poor and if he becomes dependent on you,#Literally “and his hand is shaky with you” then#Or “and” you shall support him like an alien and like a temporary resident, and he shall live with you. 36You#Singular throughout this verse must not take interest or#Or “and” usury from him, but#Or “and” you shall revere your God, and your countryman#Or “brother” shall live with you. 37You#Singular throughout this verse must not give your money to him with interest or#Or “and” give your food for#Or “in” or “with” profit. 38I am Yahweh your#Plural throughout this verse God, who brought you out from the land of Egypt to give you#Literally “to you” the land of Canaan, to be as God for you.
39“ ‘And if your#Singular throughout this verse countryman#Or “brother” who is with you becomes poor, and he is sold to you, you shall not treat him as a slave.#Literally “you shall not let him work the work of a slave” or “you shall not enslave him the work of a slave” 40He shall be with you like a hired worker, like a temporary resident; he shall work with you until the Year of Jubilee. 41And he and his sons with him shall go out from you, and he shall return to his clan, and to the property of his ancestors#Or “fathers” he shall return. 42Because they are my servants whom I brought out from the land of Egypt, they shall not be sold as a slave.#Literally “a selling of a slave” 43You#Singular throughout this verse shall not rule over him with ruthlessness, but#Or “and” you shall revere your God.
44“ ‘As for#Or “And” your#Singular slave and your#Singular slave woman who are#Or “may be” (permission; cf. NASU, ESV, NRSV) or “can be” (ability) yours,#Singular from the nations that are all around you,#Plural from them you#Plural may buy a slave or#Or “and” a slave woman. 45And you#Plural throughout this verse may buy also from the children#Or “sons” of the temporary residents who are dwelling with you as aliens and from their clan who are with you, who have children in your land; indeed,#Or “and” they may be as property for you. 46And you#Plural may pass them on as an inheritance to your#Plural sons#Or “children” after you#Plural to take possession of as property for all time#Literally “to eternity” or “forever” or “for a long duration”—you#Plural may let them work. But#Or “And” as for your#Plural countrymen,#Or “brothers” the Israelites,#Literally “sons/children of Israel” you#Singular shall not rule with ruthlessness over one another.#Literally “a man over his brother”
47“ ‘And if the alien or#Or “and” the temporary resident who are with you#Singular throughout this verse prosper,#Literally “the hand produces” but#Or “and” your countryman#Or “brother” who is with him becomes poor and he is sold to an alien, a temporary resident who is with you, or to a descendant of an alien’s clan, 48after he is sold redemption shall be for him; one of his brothers may redeem him, 49or his uncle or his uncle’s son may redeem him, or one of#Literally “from” his close relatives#Literally “the direct relative of his flesh” from his clan may redeem him; or if he prospers,#Literally “his hand produces” he may redeem himself. 50And he shall calculate with his buyer from the year of his selling himself#Literally “his being sold for him” until the Jubilee; and the value of his selling shall be according to the number of years—it shall be with him like#Or “as” a hired worker’s days. 51If there are still many years, in keeping with them#Literally “to the mouth of them” he shall restore his redemption in proportion to his purchase price.#Literally “from the price of his acquisition” 52And if there are a few years left until the Year of Jubilee, then#Or “and” he shall calculate for himself; he shall restore his redemption according to the number of his years.#Literally “according to the mouth of his years” 53He shall be with him as a yearly hired worker;#Literally “as a hired worker of a year in a year” he shall not rule over him with ruthlessness in your#Singular sight.#Literally “to your eyes” or “for your eyes” 54And if he is not redeemed by#Or “in” any of these ways,#Bracketed words provided from the sense of the context then#Or “and” he and his sons with him shall go out in the Year of Jubilee. 55Indeed,#Emphatic use of כִּי, since there is no indication of direct causation to only what precedes in vv. 47–54; or “Because” the Israelites#Literally “sons/children of Israel” are servants for me; they are my servants whom I brought out from the land of Egypt. I am Yahweh your#Plural God.’ ”
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