11
Clean and Unclean Animals
1Then#Or “And” Yahweh spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying to them, 2“Speak to the Israelites,#Literally “sons/children of Israel” saying, ‘These are the animals that you may eat from all the animals that are on the land: 3Any among the animals that has a divided hoof and has a split cleft in#Hebrew “of” the hoof, such#Hebrew “her/it” you may eat. 4However,#Or “Only” these#By context; Hebrew “this” you may not eat from those that chew the cud and from those that have a#Hebrew “the” divided hoof: the camel, because it is a chewer of cud but it does not have a hoof that is divided—it is unclean for you; 5and the coney, because it is a chewer of cud but it does not have a hoof that is divided—it is unclean for you; 6and the hare, because it is a chewer of cud but it does not have a hoof that is divided—it is unclean for you; 7and the pig, because it has a divided hoof and has a split cleft in#Hebrew “of” the hoof but it does not chew cud—it is unclean for you. 8You must not eat from their meat, and you must not touch their dead body—they are unclean for you.
9“ ‘These#By context; Hebrew “This” you may eat from all that are in the water: any in the water that has a fin and scales, whether in the seas or#Or “and” in the streams—such#Hebrew “them” you may eat. 10But any that does not have a fin and scales, whether in the seas or#Or “and” in the streams, among#Literally “from” all the water’s swarmers among all the living creatures that are in the water—they are a detestable thing to you. 11And they shall be detestable to you; you must not eat from their meat, and you must detest their dead body. 12Any that does not have a fin and scales in the water—it is a detestable thing to you.
13“ ‘And these you must detest from the birds; they must not be eaten—they are detestable: the eagle and the vulture and the short-toed eagle, 14and the red kite and the black kite according to its kind, 15every crow according to its kind, 16and the ostrich#Literally “the daughter of the ostrich” and the short-eared owl and the seagull and the hawk according to its kind, 17 and the little owl and the cormorant and the great owl, 18and the barn owl and the desert owl and the carrion vulture, 19and the stork, the heron according to its kind and the hoopoe and the bat.
20“ ‘Any winged insect#Literally “swarmer of the wing” that walks on all fours is detestable to you. 21Only this may you eat from any of the winged insects#Literally “the swarmer of the wing” that walk on all fours—that which has jointed legs above its feet for leaping upon the land. 22From these#Literally “These from them” you may eat the locust according to its kind and the bald locust according to its kind and the cricket according to its kind and the grasshopper according to its kind. 23But#Or “And” any other#Implied by context winged insect#Literally “swarmer of wing” that has four legs is detestable to you. 24And by these you shall become unclean—anyone who touches their dead body shall become unclean until the evening, 25and anyone who carries their dead body must wash his garments, and he shall be unclean until the evening.
26“ ‘With regard to any animal that has a divided hoof but does not split the hoof, or#Or “and” does not have a cud for chewing#So HALOT 830 s.v. 4—they are unclean for you; anyone who touches them shall become unclean. 27And anything that walks upon its paws among any of the animals#Collective singular = plural by context that walks on all fours—they are unclean for you; anyone who touches their dead body shall become unclean until the evening, 28and the one who carries their dead body must wash his garments, and he shall be unclean until the evening—they are unclean for you.
29“ ‘And these#By context; Hebrew “this” are the unclean for you among the swarmers#Collective singular = plural that swarm on the land: the weasel and the mouse and the thorn-tailed lizard according to its kind, 30and the gecko and the land crocodile and the lizard and the sand lizard and the chameleon. 31These are the unclean for you among all the swarmers; anyone who touches them at their death shall become unclean until the evening. 32And anything on which one of them#Literally “from them” falls at their death shall become unclean: any object of wood or garment or skin or sackcloth—any object that has performed work—must be placed in water, and it shall be unclean until the evening, and then it shall be clean. 33And any clay vessel#Context indicates a vessel as distinguished from a tool or utensil into which it falls shall become unclean, and you must break it. 34Any of the food that could be eaten on which water from such a vessel comes shall become unclean, and any liquid that could be drunk in any such vessel shall become unclean. 35And anything on which one of their dead bodies#Literally “from their dead body” falls shall become unclean: an oven or#Or “and” a stove must be broken#Or “smashed” (NASB, HCSB, NET, NJPS) or “broken in pieces” (ASV, ESV, NRSV)—they are unclean and shall be unclean for you. 36Surely#So HALOT 45 a spring or#Or “and” a cistern collecting water shall be clean, but that which touches their dead body shall become unclean. 37And when one of their dead bodies#Literally “from their dead body” falls on any seed for sowing,#Literally “seed plant that is to be sown” it is clean. 38But#Or “And” when water is put on the seed and one of their dead bodies#Literally “from their dead body” falls on it, it is unclean for you.
39“ ‘And when one of the animals#Literally “from the animal” dies that is for you to eat, the one who touches its dead body shall become unclean until the evening. 40And the one who eats some of#Literally “from” its dead body must wash his garments, and he shall be unclean until the evening; and the one who carries its dead body must wash his garments, and he shall be unclean until the evening.
41“ ‘And any swarmer that swarms on the land is detestable; it must not be eaten. 42You must not eat#Hebrew “eat them” anything that moves upon its belly or#Or “and” that walks on all fours, even any with numerous feet belonging to any swarmer that swarms on the land, because they are detestable. 43You must not defile yourselves with any swarmer that swarms, and you must not make yourselves unclean by them and so be made unclean by them, 44because I am Yahweh your God, and you must keep yourselves sanctified, so that#Or “and” you shall be holy, because I am holy. And you must not make yourselves unclean with any swarmer that moves along on the land, 45because I am Yahweh, who brought you up from the land of Egypt to be for you as God. Thus#Or “And” you shall be holy, because I am holy.
46“ ‘This is the regulation of the animals#Collective singulars in this verse are plural by context and the birds and all living creatures that move along in the water and concerning#Literally “of” all the creatures that swarm on the land, 47to distinguish between the unclean and the clean and between the animal that is to be eaten and the animal that must not be eaten.’ ”
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