Israel and Oppression in Egypt
1And these are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt; with Jacob, they each came with his family:#Literally “house” 2Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; 3Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin; 4Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 5And all those who descended from Jacob#Literally “every soul/individual/life, the ones going out from the loins of Jacob” were seventy individuals,#Or “souls,” “lives” and Joseph was in Egypt. 6And Joseph died and all of his brothers and all of that generation. 7And the Israelites#Literally “sons/children of Israel” were fruitful and multiplied and were many and were very, very numerous, and the land was filled with them.
8And a new king rose over Egypt who did not know Joseph. 9And he said to his people, “Look, the people of the Israelites#Literally “sons/children of Israel” are greater and more numerous than us. 10Come, we must deal shrewdly with them, lest they become many, and when war happens, they also will join our enemies and will fight against us and go up from the land.” 11And they appointed commanders of forced labor over them in order to oppress them with their forced labor,#Literally “burdens” or “burdensome labor” and they built storage cities for Pharaoh—Pithom and Rameses. 12And as he oppressed them, so they became many, and so they spread out, and the Egyptians were afraid because of the presence of the Israelites.#Literally “sons/children of Israel” 13And the Egyptians ruthlessly compelled the Israelites#Literally “sons/children of Israel” to work. 14And they made their lives bitter with hard work with mortar and with bricks and with all sorts of work in the field—with all their work in which they ruthlessly enslaved them.
15And the king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives—of whom the name of the one was Shiphrah and the name of the second was Puah—16and he said, “When you help the Hebrews give birth, you will look upon the pairs of testicles; if he is a son, you will put him to death, and if she is a daughter, she will live.” 17But the midwives feared God, and they did not do as the king of Egypt had said to them. They let the boys live. 18And the king of Egypt summoned the midwives, and he said to them, “Why have you done this thing and let the boys live?” 19And the midwives said to Pharaoh, “Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, because they are vigorous; before the midwife comes to them, they have given birth.” 20And God did the midwives good, and the Israelite people became many and were very numerous. 21And so#Literally “and he/it was” because the midwives feared God, he gave them families.#Literally “houses” 22And Pharaoh commanded all his people, saying, “Every son who is born you will throw into the Nile, and every daughter you will let live.”