7
Stephen’s Defense
1 And the high priest said, “Is it so concerning these things?” 2So he said, “Men—brothers and fathers—listen: The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham while he#*Here “while” is supplied as a component of the participle (“was”) which is understood as temporal was in Mesopotamia, before he settled in Haran, 3and said to him, ‘Go out from your land and from your relatives and come to the land that I will show you.’ 4Then he went out from the land of the Chaldeans and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“went out”) has been translated as a finite verb settled in Haran. And from there, after his father died, he caused him to move to this land in which you now live. 5And he did not give him an inheritance in it—not even a footstep#Literally “a step of a foot”—and he promised to give it#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation to him for his possession, and to his descendants after him, although he did not have#Literally “not being to him”#*Here “although” is supplied in the translation as a component of the participle (“was”) which is understood as concessive a child. 6But God spoke like this: ‘His descendants will be foreigners in a foreign land, and they will enslave them and mistreat them#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation four hundred years, 7and the nation that#Literally “to which” they will serve as slaves, I will judge,’ God said, ‘and after these things they will come out#Verses 6–7 are a quotation from Gen 15:13–14 and will worship me in this place.’#The final phrase is an allusion to Exod 3:12 8And he gave him the covenant of circumcision, and so he became the father of Isaac and circumcised him on the eighth day, and Isaac did so with#*Here the words “did so with” are not in the Greek text but are implied; in view of the “covenant of circumcision” mentioned earlier in the verse, it is probable that circumcision and not just fatherhood is involved Jacob, and Jacob did so with#*Here the words “did so with” are not in the Greek text but are implied; see the note on the same phrase earlier in this verse the twelve patriarchs. 9And the patriarchs, because they#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the participle (“were jealous of”) which is understood as causal were jealous of Joseph, sold him#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation into Egypt. And God was with him, 10and rescued him from all his afflictions and granted him favor and wisdom in the sight of Pharaoh king of Egypt. And he appointed him ruler over Egypt and all#Some manuscripts have “over all” his household. 11And a famine came over all Egypt and Canaan and great affliction, and our fathers could not find food. 12So when#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“heard”) which is understood as temporal Jacob heard there was grain in Egypt, he sent out our fathers first. 13And on the second visit#*The word “visit” is not in the Greek text but is implied Joseph was made known to his brothers, and the family of Joseph became known to Pharaoh. 14So Joseph sent and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“sent”) has been translated as a finite verb summoned his father Jacob and all his#*Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun relatives, seventy-five persons in all. 15And Jacob went down to Egypt and died, he and our fathers. 16And they were brought back to Shechem and buried in the tomb that Abraham had bought for a sum of silver from the sons of Hamor in Shechem.
17“But as the time of the promise that God had made to Abraham was drawing near, the people increased and multiplied in Egypt 18until another king arose over Egypt who did not know Joseph. 19This man deceitfully took advantage of our#*Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun people and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“deceitfully took advantage of”) has been translated as a finite verb mistreated our ancestors, causing them to abandon their infants#Literally “making their infants be abandoned” so that they would not be kept alive. 20At this time Moses was born, and he was beautiful to God. He#Literally “who” was brought up for three months in his#*Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun father’s house, 21and when#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“was abandoned”) he was abandoned, the daughter of Pharaoh took him up and brought him up as her own son.#Literally “for a son to herself” 22And Moses was educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was powerful in his words and deeds.
23“But when he was forty years old,#Literally “a period of time of forty years was fulfilled for him” it entered in his heart to visit his brothers, the sons of Israel. 24And when he#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“saw”) which is understood as temporal saw one of them being unjustly harmed, he defended him#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation and avenged#Literally “produced vengeance for” the one who had been oppressed by#*Here “by” is supplied as a component of the participle (“striking down”) which is understood as means striking down the Egyptian. 25And he thought his#*Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun brothers would understand that God was granting deliverance to them by his hand, but they did not understand. 26And on the following day, he made an appearance to them while they#*Here “while” is supplied as a component of the participle (“were fighting”) which is understood as temporal were fighting and was attempting to reconcile#*Here the imperfect verb has been translated as conative (“was attempting to reconcile”) them in peace, saying, ‘Men and brothers, why are you doing wrong to one another?’ 27But the one who was doing wrong to his#*Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun neighbor pushed him aside, saying, ‘Who appointed you a ruler and a judge over us? 28You do not want to do away with me the same way#Literally “in the manner in which” you did away with the Egyptian yesterday, do you?’#A quotation from Exod 2:14; the negative construction in Greek anticipates a negative answer here, indicated by “do you” 29And at this statement, Moses fled and became a foreigner in the land of Midian, where he became the father of two sons.
30“And when#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“had been completed”) forty years had been completed, an angel appeared to him in the desert of Mount Sinai in the flame of a burning bush. 31And when#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“saw”) which is understood as temporal Moses saw it,#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation he was astonished at the sight, and when#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“approached”) he approached to look at it,#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation the voice of the Lord came: 32‘I am the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob!’#A quotation from Exod 3:6 So Moses began trembling and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“began”) has been translated as a finite verb did not dare to look at it.#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation 33And the Lord said to him, ‘Untie the sandals from your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground. 34I have certainly seen#Literally “seeing I have seen” the mistreatment of my people who are in Egypt and have heard their groaning, and I have come down to deliver them. And now come, I will send you to Egypt.’#A quotation from Exod 3:5, 7–8, 10 35This Moses whom they had repudiated, saying, ‘Who appointed you a ruler and a judge?’#A quotation from Exod 2:14 (see v. 27 above)—this man God sent as both ruler and redeemer with the help#Literally “hand” of the angel who appeared to him in the bush. 36This man led them out, performing wonders and signs in the land of Egypt and at the Red Sea and in the wilderness for forty years.
37“This is the Moses who said to the sons of Israel, ‘God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your brothers.’#A quotation from Deut 18:15 38This is the one who was in the congregation in the wilderness with the angel who spoke to him at Mount Sinai, and who with our fathers received living oracles to give to us, 39to whom our fathers were not willing to become obedient, but rejected him#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation and turned back in their hearts to Egypt, 40saying to Aaron, ‘Make us gods who will go on before us! For this Moses, who led us out from the land of Egypt—we do not know what has happened to him!’#A quotation from Exod 32:1, 23 41And they manufactured a calf in those days, and offered up a sacrifice to the idol, and began rejoicing#*The imperfect tense has been translated as ingressive here (“began rejoicing”) in the works of their hands. 42But God turned away and gave them over to worship the host of heaven, just as it is written in the book of the prophets:
‘You did not bring offerings and sacrifices to me
for forty years in the wilderness, did you,#*The negative construction in Greek anticipates a negative answer here, indicated by “did you” house of Israel?
43And you took along the tabernacle#Or “tent” of Moloch
and the star of the god#Some manuscripts have “of your god” Rephan,
the images that you made, to worship them,
and I will deport you beyond Babylon!’#A quotation from Amos 5:25–27
44The tabernacle of the testimony belonged#Literally “was” to our fathers in the wilderness, just as the one who spoke to Moses directed him#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation to make it according to the design that he had seen, 45and which, after#*Here “after” is supplied as a component of the participle (“receiving”) which is understood as temporal receiving it#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation in turn, our fathers brought in with Joshua when they dispossessed the#Literally “in the possession of the” nations that God drove out from the presence of our fathers, until the days of David, 46who found favor in the sight of God and asked to find a habitation for the God of Jacob.#Some manuscripts have “for the house of Jacob” 47But Solomon built a house for him. 48But the Most High does not live in houses#Or “temples made by human hands”; either word (“houses” or “temples”) is understood here made by human hands, just as the prophet says,
49‘Heaven is my throne
and earth is the footstool for my feet.
What kind of house will you build for me, says the Lord,
or what is the place of my rest?
50Did not my hand make all these things?’#A quotation from Isa 66:1–2
51“You stiff-necked people and uncircumcised in hearts and in your#*Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun ears! You constantly resist the Holy Spirit! As your fathers did, so also do you! 52Which of the prophets did your fathers not persecute? And they killed those who announced beforehand about the coming of the Righteous One, whose betrayers and murderers you have now become, 53you who received the law by directions of angels and have not observed it!”
Stephen’s Martyrdom
54Now when they#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“heard”) which is understood as temporal heard these things, they were infuriated in their hearts and gnashed their#*Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun teeth at him. 55But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked intently into heaven and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“looked intently”) has been translated as a finite verb saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. 56And he said, “Behold, I see the heavens opened and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God!” 57But crying out with a loud voice, they stopped their ears and rushed at him with one purpose. 58And after they#*Here “after” is supplied as a component of the participle (“had driven”) which is understood as temporal had driven him#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation out of the city, they began to stone#*The imperfect tense has been translated as ingressive here (“began stoning”) him,#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation and the witnesses laid aside their cloaks at the feet of a young man named Saul. 59And they kept on stoning Stephen as he#*Here “as” is supplied as a component of the participle (“was calling out”) which is understood as temporal was calling out and saying, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!” 60And falling to his#*Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun knees, he cried out with a loud voice, “Lord, do not hold this sin against them!” And after he#*Here “after” is supplied as a component of the participle (“said”) which is understood as temporal said this, he fell asleep.#Or “he passed away”
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