27
Paul and His Associates Sail for Rome
1 And when it was decided that we would sail away to Italy, they handed over Paul and some other prisoners to a centurion named#Literally “by name” Julius of the Augustan#The meaning and significance of the title “Augustan” is highly debated, as is the precise identification of this military unit; it may be an honorary unit designation given to auxiliary or provincial troops Cohort. 2And we went aboard a ship from Adramyttium that was about to sail to the places along the coast#*The word “coast” is not in the Greek text but is implied of Asia#A reference to the Roman province of Asia (modern Asia Minor) and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“went aboard”) has been translated as a finite verb put out to sea. Aristarchus, a Macedonian from Thessalonica, was with us. 3And on the next day, we put in at Sidon. And Julius, treating Paul kindly, allowed him#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation to go to his#*Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun friends to be cared for.#Literally “to experience care” 4And from there we put out to sea and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“put out to sea”) has been translated as a finite verb sailed under the lee of Cyprus, because the winds were against us.#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation 5And after we#*Here “after” is supplied as a component of the participle (“had sailed across”) which is understood as temporal had sailed across the open sea along Cilicia and Pamphylia, we put in at Myra in Lycia. 6And there the centurion found an Alexandrian ship sailing for Italy and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“found”) has been translated as a finite verb put us on board#Literally “into” it. 7And sailing slowly, in many days and with difficulty we came#*Here this participle (“came”) has been translated as a finite verb in keeping with English style to Cnidus. Because#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the causal genitive absolute participle (“permit … to go further”) the wind did not permit us to go further, we sailed under the lee of Crete off Salmone. 8And sailing along its coast with difficulty, we came to a certain place called Fair Havens, near which was the town of Lasea.
9And because#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the causal genitive absolute participle (“had passed”) considerable time had passed and the voyage was now dangerous because even the Fast#A reference to the Jewish Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) which occurs in mid-autumn was already over, Paul strongly recommended, 10saying to them, “Men, I perceive that the voyage is going to end#Literally “to be” with disaster and great loss, not only of the cargo and the ship, but also of our lives!” 11But the centurion was convinced even more by the shipmaster and the shipowner than by what was said by Paul. 12And because#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the causal genitive absolute participle (“was”) the harbor was unsuitable for spending the winter in, the majority decided on a plan to put out to sea from there, if somehow they could arrive at Phoenix, a harbor of Crete facing toward the southwest and toward the northwest, to spend the winter there.#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
A Violent Storm at Sea
13And when#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“began to blow gently”) a southwest wind began to blow gently, because they#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the participle (“thought”) which is understood as causal thought they could accomplish their purpose, they weighed anchor and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“weighed anchor”) has been translated as a finite verb sailed close along Crete. 14But not long afterward a wind like a hurricane, called the northeaster,#Literally “Euraquilo,” a violent northern wind rushed down from it.#That is, from the island of Crete 15And when#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“was caught”) the ship was caught and was not able to head into the wind, we gave way and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“gave way”) has been translated as a finite verb were driven along. 16And running under the lee of a certain small island called Cauda, we were able with difficulty to get the ship’s boat under control. 17After#*Here “after” is supplied as a component of the participle (“hoisting”) which is understood as temporal hoisting it up,#Literally “which” they made use of supports to undergird the ship. And because they#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the participle (“were afraid”) which is understood as causal were afraid lest they run aground on the Syrtis, they lowered the sea anchor and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“lowered”) has been translated as a finite verb thus were driven along. 18And because#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the causal genitive absolute participle (“battered by the storm”) we were violently battered by the storm, on the next day they began#Literally “they began to carry out” jettisoning the cargo,#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation 19and on the third day they threw overboard the gear of the ship with their own hands. 20But when#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“appeared”) neither sun nor stars appeared for many days, and with not a little bad weather confronting us,#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation finally all hope was abandoned that we would be saved.
21And because#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the causal genitive absolute participle (“were experiencing”) many were experiencing lack of appetite, at that time Paul stood up in their midst and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“stood up”) has been translated as a finite verb said, “Men, you ought to have followed my advice not to put out to sea from Crete, and thus avoided this damage and loss! 22And now I urge you to cheer up, for there will be no loss of life from among you, but only of the ship. 23For this night an angel of the God whose I am and whom I serve came to me, 24saying, ‘Do not be afraid, Paul! It is necessary for you to stand before Caesar, and behold, God has graciously granted you all who are sailing with you.’ 25Therefore keep up your courage, men, for I believe God that it will be like this—according to the#Literally “which” way it was told to me. 26But it is necessary that we run aground on some island.”
27And when the fourteenth night had come, as#*Here “as” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“were being driven”) we were being driven in the Adriatic Sea about the middle of the night, the sailors suspected they were approaching some land.#Literally “some land was approaching them” 28And taking soundings, they found twenty fathoms. So going on a little further and taking soundings again, they found fifteen fathoms. 29And because they#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the participle (“were afraid”) which is understood as causal were afraid lest somewhere we run aground against rough places, they threw down four anchors from the stern and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“threw down”) has been translated as a finite verb prayed for day to come. 30And when#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“were seeking”) the sailors were seeking to escape from the ship and were lowering the ship’s boat into the sea, pretending as if they were going to lay out anchors from the bow, 31Paul said to the centurion and the soldiers, “Unless these men remain with the ship, you cannot be saved!” 32Then the soldiers cut away the ropes of the ship’s boat and let it fall away.#Or “let it drift away”
33And until the day was about to come, Paul was urging them all to take some food, saying, “Today is the fourteenth day you have waited anxiously, and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“have waited”) has been translated as a finite verb you have continued without eating, having taken nothing. 34Therefore I urge you to take some food, for this is necessary for your preservation. For not a hair from your head will be lost.” 35And after he#*Here “after” is supplied as a component of the participle (“said”) which is understood as temporal said these things and took bread, he gave thanks to God in front of them all, and after#*Here “after” is supplied as a component of the participle (“breaking”) which is understood as temporal breaking it,#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation he began to eat. 36So they all were#*Here this participle (“were”) has been translated as a finite verb in keeping with English style encouraged and partook of food themselves. 37(Now we were in all two hundred seventy six persons on the ship.) 38And when they#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“had eaten their fill”) which is understood as temporal had eaten their fill of food, they lightened the ship by#*Here “by” is supplied as a component of the participle (“throwing”) which is understood as means throwing the wheat#Or “grain” into the sea.
The Shipwreck
39Now when day came, they did not recognize the land, but they noticed a certain bay having a beach, onto which they decided to run the ship ashore if they could. 40And slipping the anchors, they left them#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation in the sea, at the same time loosening the ropes#Or “bands” (referring to the linkage that tied the steering oars together) of the steering oars. And hoisting the foresail to the wind that was blowing, they held course for the beach. 41But falling into a place of crosscurrents,#Or “a reef”; literally “a place of two seas,” an expression of uncertain meaning but most likely a nautical technical term for some adverse sea condition they ran the ship aground. And the bow stuck fast and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“stuck fast”) has been translated as a finite verb stayed immovable, but the stern was being broken up by the violence.#Some manuscripts have “the violence of the waves” 42Now the plan of the soldiers was that they would kill the prisoners lest any escape by#*Here “by” is supplied as a component of the participle (“swimming away”) which is understood as means swimming away, 43but the centurion, because he#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the participle (“wanted”) which is understood as causal wanted to save Paul, prevented them from doing what they intended,#Literally “of the intention” and gave orders that those who were able to swim should jump in first to get to the land, 44and then the rest, some of whom floated#*The word “floated” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied in the translation for clarity on planks and some of whom on anything that was from the ship. And in this way all were brought safely to the land.
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