Paul Makes His Defense Before King Agrippa
1 So Agrippa said to Paul, “It is permitted for you to speak for yourself.” Then Paul extended his#*Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun hand and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“extended”) has been translated as a finite verb began to defend himself:#*The imperfect tense has been translated as ingressive here (“began to defend himself”)
2“Concerning all the things of which I am accused by the Jews, King Agrippa, I consider myself fortunate that before you I am about to defend myself today, 3because#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the participle (“are”) which is understood as causal you are especially acquainted with both all the customs and controversial questions with respect to the Jews. Therefore I beg you#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation to listen to me with patience.
4“Now all the Jews know my manner of life from my youth, that had taken place from the beginning among my own people#Or “nation” and in Jerusalem, 5having known me for a long time, if they are willing to testify, that in accordance with the strictest party of our religion I lived as a Pharisee. 6And now I stand here on trial on the basis of hope in the promise made by God to our fathers, 7to which our twelve tribes hope to attain as they earnestly serve him#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation night and day. Concerning this hope I am being accused by the Jews, O king! 8Why is it thought incredible by you people#*Here “people” is supplied in the translation to indicate that the pronoun (“you”) is plural that God raises the dead? 9Indeed, I myself thought it was necessary to do many things opposed to the name of Jesus the Nazarene, 10which I also did in Jerusalem, and not only did I lock up many of the saints in prison, having received authority from the chief priests, but also when#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“were being executed”) they were being executed, I cast my vote#Literally “voting pebble,” but here “vote” rather than “voting pebble” is used in the translation to avoid the idea that this small stone was actually thrown at the accused (it was used as a method of voting) against them.#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation 11And throughout all the synagogues I punished them often and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“punished”) has been translated as a finite verb tried to force#*The imperfect tense has been translated as conative here (“tried to force”) them#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation to blaspheme, and because I#*Here “because” is supplied as a component of the participle (“was enraged”) which is understood as causal was enraged at them beyond measure, I was pursuing them#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation even as far as to foreign cities. 12In this activity#Literally “which” I was traveling to Damascus with the authority and full power of the chief priests. 13In the middle of the day along the road, O king, I saw a light from heaven, more than the brightness of the sun, shining around me and those who were traveling with me. 14And when#*Here “when” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“had … fallen”) we had all fallen to the ground, I heard a voice saying to me in the Aramaic language, ‘Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads!’ 15So I said, ‘Who are you, Lord?’ And the Lord said, ‘I am Jesus whom you are persecuting. 16But get up and stand on your feet, because for this reason I have appeared to you, to appoint you a servant and witness both to the things in which you saw me and to the things in which I will appear to you, 17rescuing you from the people and from the Gentiles to whom I am sending you, 18to open their eyes so that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, so that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a share among those who are sanctified by faith in me.’
19“Therefore, O King Agrippa, I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision, 20but to those in Damascus first, and in Jerusalem and all the region of Judea and to the Gentiles, I proclaimed that they should repent and turn to God, doing deeds worthy of repentance. 21On account of these things the Jews seized me in#Some manuscripts have “while I was in” the temple courts#*Here “courts” is supplied to distinguish this area from the interior of the temple building itself and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“seized”) has been translated as a finite verb were attempting to kill me.#*Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation 22Therefore I have experienced help from God until this day, and#*Here “and” is supplied because the previous participle (“have experienced”) has been translated as a finite verb I stand here testifying to both small and great, saying nothing except what both the prophets and Moses have said were going to happen, 23that the Christ#Or “Messiah” was to suffer and that as the first of the resurrection from the dead, he was going to proclaim light both to the people and to the Gentiles.”
24And as#*Here “as” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“was saying … in his defense”) he was saying these things in his defense, Festus said with a loud voice, “You are out of your mind, Paul! Your#*Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun great learning is driving#Literally “is turning” you insane!”#Literally “to madness” 25But Paul said, “I am not out of my mind, most excellent Festus, but am speaking words of truth and rationality. 26For the king knows about these things, to whom also I am speaking freely, for I am not convinced that these things in any way have escaped#Some manuscripts have “that any of these things in any way has escaped” his notice, because this was#Literally “is” not done#Literally “having been done” in a corner. 27Do you believe the prophets, King Agrippa? I know that you believe.” 28But Agrippa said to Paul, “In a short time are you persuading me to become a Christian?”#Or “In a short time you are persuading me to become a Christian” 29And Paul replied, “I pray to God, whether in a short time or in a long time, not only you but also all those who are listening to me today may become such people as I also am, except for these bonds!”
30Both the king and the governor got up, and Bernice and those who were sitting with them. 31And as they#*Here “as” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“were going out”) were going out, they were talking to one another, saying, “This man is not doing anything deserving death or imprisonment.” 32And Agrippa said to Festus, “This man could have been released if he had not appealed to Caesar.”