IV. EPILOGUE: THE RESURRECTION APPEARANCE IN GALILEE
The Appearance to the Seven Disciples.
1#There are many non-Johannine peculiarities in this chapter, some suggesting Lucan Greek style; yet this passage is closer to John than Jn 7:53–8:11. There are many Johannine features as well. Its closest parallels in the synoptic gospels are found in Lk 5:1–11 and Mt 14:28–31. Perhaps the tradition was ultimately derived from John but preserved by some disciple other than the writer of the rest of the gospel. The appearances narrated seem to be independent of those in Jn 20. Even if a later addition, the chapter was added before publication of the gospel, for it appears in all manuscripts. After this, Jesus revealed himself again to his disciples at the Sea of Tiberias. He revealed himself in this way.#a. [21:1] Mt 26:32; 28:7. 2Together were Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus, Nathanael from Cana in Galilee, Zebedee’s sons,#Zebedee’s sons: the only reference to James and John in this gospel (but see note on Jn 1:37). Perhaps the phrase was originally a gloss to identify, among the five, the two others of his disciples. The anonymity of the latter phrase is more Johannine (Jn 1:35). The total of seven may suggest the community of the disciples in its fullness. and two others of his disciples. 3#This may be a variant of Luke’s account of the catch of fish; see note on Lk 5:1–11. Simon Peter said to them, “I am going fishing.” They said to him, “We also will come with you.” So they went out and got into the boat, but that night they caught nothing.#b. [21:3] Mt 4:18; Lk 5:4–10. 4When it was already dawn, Jesus was standing on the shore; but the disciples did not realize that it was Jesus.#c. [21:4] 20:14; Mt 28:17; Lk 24:16. 5Jesus said to them, “Children, have you caught anything to eat?” They answered him, “No.”#d. [21:5] Lk 24:41. 6So he said to them, “Cast the net over the right side of the boat and you will find something.” So they cast it, and were not able to pull it in because of the number of fish. 7So the disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, “It is the Lord.” When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he tucked in his garment, for he was lightly clad, and jumped into the sea. 8The other disciples came in the boat, for they were not far from shore, only about a hundred yards, dragging the net with the fish. 9#It is strange that Jesus already has fish since none have yet been brought ashore. This meal may have had eucharistic significance for early Christians since Jn 21:13 recalls Jn 6:11 which uses the vocabulary of Jesus’ action at the Last Supper; but see also note on Mt 14:19. #e. [21:9] Lk 24:41–43. When they climbed out on shore, they saw a charcoal fire with fish on it and bread. 10Jesus said to them, “Bring some of the fish you just caught.” 11So Simon Peter went over and dragged the net ashore full of one hundred fifty-three#The exact number 153 is probably meant to have a symbolic meaning in relation to the apostles’ universal mission; Jerome claims that Greek zoologists catalogued 153 species of fish. Or 153 is the sum of the numbers from 1 to 17. Others invoke Ez 47:10. large fish. Even though there were so many, the net was not torn.#f. [21:11] 2 Chr 2:16. 12Jesus said to them, “Come, have breakfast.” And none of the disciples dared to ask him,#None…dared to ask him: is Jesus’ appearance strange to them? Cf. Lk 24:16; Mk 16:12; Jn 20:14. The disciples do, however, recognize Jesus before the breaking of the bread (opposed to Lk 24:35). “Who are you?” because they realized it was the Lord. 13Jesus came over and took the bread and gave it to them, and in like manner the fish.#g. [21:13] Lk 24:42. 14#This verse connects Jn 20 and 21; cf. Jn 20:19, 26. This was now the third time#h. [21:14] 20:19, 26. Jesus was revealed to his disciples after being raised from the dead.
Jesus and Peter.
#This section constitutes Peter’s rehabilitation and emphasizes his role in the church. 15When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter,#In these three verses there is a remarkable variety of synonyms: two different Greek verbs for love (see note on Jn 15:13); two verbs for feed/tend; two nouns for sheep; two verbs for know. But apparently there is no difference of meaning. The threefold confession of Peter is meant to counteract his earlier threefold denial (Jn 18:17, 25, 27). The First Vatican Council cited these verses in defining that Jesus after his resurrection gave Peter the jurisdiction of supreme shepherd and ruler over the whole flock. “Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?”#More than these: probably “more than these disciples do” rather than “more than you love them” or “more than you love these things [fishing, etc.].” He said to him, “Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.” He said to him, “Feed my lambs.” 16He then said to him a second time, “Simon, son of John, do you love me?” He said to him, “Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.” He said to him, “Tend my sheep.” 17He said to him the third time, “Simon, son of John, do you love me?” Peter was distressed that he had said to him a third time, “Do you love me?” and he said to him, “Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you.” [Jesus] said to him, “Feed my sheep.#i. [21:17] 13:37–38; 18:15–18, 25–27; Mt 26:69–75; Mk 14:66–72; Lk 22:55–62. 18#Originally probably a proverb about old age, now used as a figurative reference to the crucifixion of Peter. Amen, amen, I say to you,#j. [21:18] Acts 21:11, 14; 2 Pt 1:14. when you were younger, you used to dress yourself and go where you wanted; but when you grow old, you will stretch out your hands, and someone else will dress you and lead you where you do not want to go.” 19He said this signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God. And when he had said this, he said to him, “Follow me.”#k. [21:19] 13:36.
The Beloved Disciple.
20Peter turned and saw the disciple following whom Jesus loved, the one who had also reclined upon his chest during the supper and had said, “Master, who is the one who will betray you?”#l. [21:20] 13:25. 21When Peter saw him, he said to Jesus, “Lord, what about him?” 22Jesus said to him, “What if I want him to remain until I come?#Until I come: a reference to the parousia. What concern is it of yours? You follow me.”#m. [21:22] Mt 16:28. 23#This whole scene takes on more significance if the disciple is already dead. The death of the apostolic generation caused problems in the church because of a belief that Jesus was to have returned first. Loss of faith sometimes resulted; cf. 2 Pt 3:4. So the word spread among the brothers that that disciple would not die. But Jesus had not told him that he would not die, just “What if I want him to remain until I come? [What concern is it of yours?]”
24It is this disciple who testifies to these things and has written them,#Who…has written them: this does not necessarily mean he wrote them with his own hand. The same expression is used in Jn 19:22 of Pilate, who certainly would not have written the inscription himself. We know: i.e., the Christian community; cf. Jn 1:14, 16. and we know that his testimony is true.#n. [21:24] 19:35. 25There are also many other things that Jesus did, but if these were to be described individually, I do not think the whole world would contain the books that would be written.#o. [21:25] 20:30.
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