1#a. [34:1–2] 2 Kgs 22:1–2. Josiah was eight years old when he became king, and he reigned thirty-one years in Jerusalem. 2He did what was right in the Lord’s sight, walking in the way of David his father, not turning right or left. 3#b. [34:3–7] 2 Chr 14:1–4; 31:1; 2 Kgs 23:4–20. In the eighth year of his reign, while he was still a youth, he began to seek after the God of David his father. Then in his twelfth year#In his twelfth year: ca. 628 B.C., i.e., around the time of the Assyrian emperor Asshurbanipal’s death, which enabled Judah to free itself from Assyrian domination. On the basis of 2 Kgs 22:1–23:25 alone, one might suppose that Josiah’s reform began only after and as a result of the discovery of the book of the law in the Temple, in the eighteenth year of his reign (622 B.C.). But the Chronicler is no doubt right in placing the beginning of the reform at an earlier period. The repair of the Temple itself, which led to the finding of the book of the law, was likely part of a cultic reform initiated by Josiah. he began to purify Judah and Jerusalem of the high places, the asherahs, and the carved and molten images. 4In his presence, the altars of the Baals were torn down; the incense stands erected above them he broke down; the asherahs and the carved and molten images he smashed and beat into dust, which he scattered over the tombs of those who had sacrificed to them; 5and the bones of the priests he burned upon their altars. Thus he purified Judah and Jerusalem. 6He did likewise in the cities of Manasseh, Ephraim, Simeon, and in the ruined villages of the surrounding country as far as Naphtali; 7he tore down the altars and asherahs, and the carved images he beat into dust, and broke down the incense stands throughout the land of Israel. Then he returned to Jerusalem.
The Temple Restored.
8#c. [34:8–13] 2 Kgs 22:3–7. In the eighteenth year of his reign, in order to purify the land and the temple, he sent Shaphan, son of Azaliah, Maaseiah, the ruler of the city, and Joah, son of Joahaz, the chancellor, to restore the house of the Lord, his God. 9They came to Hilkiah the high priest and turned over the money brought to the house of God which the Levites, the guardians of the threshold, had collected from Manasseh, Ephraim, and all the remnant of Israel, as well as from all of Judah, Benjamin, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem.#d. [34:9] 2 Chr 24:8–9. 10They turned it over to the master workers in the house of the Lord, and these in turn used it to pay the workers in the Lord’s house who were restoring and repairing it. 11They also gave it to the carpenters and the masons to buy hewn stone and timber for the tie beams and rafters of the buildings which the kings of Judah had allowed to fall into ruin. 12The men worked faithfully at their task; their overseers were Jahath and Obadiah, Levites of the line of Merari, and Zechariah and Meshullam, of the Kohathites, who directed them. All those Levites who were skillful with musical instruments 13were in charge of the men who carried the burdens, and they directed all the workers in every kind of labor. Some of the other Levites were scribes, officials, and gatekeepers.
The Finding of the Law.
14#e. [34:14–28] 2 Kgs 22:8–20. When they brought out the money that had been deposited in the house of the Lord, Hilkiah the priest found the book of the law of the Lord given through Moses. 15He reported this to Shaphan the scribe, saying, “I have found the book of the law in the house of the Lord.” Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan, 16who brought it to the king at the same time that he made his report to him. He said, “Your servants are doing everything that has been entrusted to them; 17they have smelted down the silver deposited in the Lord’s house and have turned it over to the overseers and the workers.” 18Then Shaphan the scribe also informed the king, “Hilkiah the priest has given me a book,” and then Shaphan read it in the presence of the king.
19When the king heard the words of the law, he tore his garments. 20The king then issued this command to Hilkiah, to Ahikam, son of Shaphan, to Abdon, son of Michah, to Shaphan the scribe, and to Asaiah, the king’s servant: 21“Go, consult the Lord for me and for those who are left in Israel and Judah, about the words of the book that has been found, for the anger of the Lord burns furiously against us, because our ancestors did not keep the word of the Lord and have not done all that is written in this book.” 22Then Hilkiah and others from the king went to Huldah the prophet, wife of Shallum, son of Tokhath, son of Hasrah, keeper of the wardrobe; she lived in Jerusalem, in the Second Quarter. They spoke to her as they had been instructed, 23and she said to them: “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: Say to the man who sent you to me, 24Thus says the Lord: I am about to bring evil upon this place and upon its inhabitants, all the curses written in the book that was read before the king of Judah. 25Because they have abandoned me and have burned incense to other gods, provoking me by all the works of their hands, my anger burns against this place and it cannot be extinguished.
26“But to the king of Judah who sent you to consult the Lord, give this response: Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: As for the words you have heard, 27because you were heartsick and have humbled yourself before God when you heard his words concerning this place and its inhabitants; because you humbled yourself before me, tore your garments, and wept before me, I in turn have heard—oracle of the Lord. 28I will gather you to your ancestors and you shall go to your grave in peace, and your eyes shall not see all the evil I am about to bring upon this place and upon its inhabitants.”
This they reported to the king.
29#f. [34:29–31] 2 Kgs 23:1–3. The king then had all the elders of Judah and of Jerusalem summoned before him. 30The king went up to the house of the Lord with all the people of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem: priests, Levites, and all the people, great and small. He read aloud to them all the words of the book of the covenant that had been found in the house of the Lord. 31The king stood by the column#The column: see note on 23:13. and made a covenant in the presence of the Lord to follow the Lord and to observe his commandments, statutes, and decrees with his whole heart and soul, carrying out the words of the covenant written in this book. 32He thereby committed all who were in Jerusalem and Benjamin, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem acted according to the covenant of God, the God of their ancestors. 33Josiah removed every abomination from all the territories belonging to the Israelites, and he obliged all who were in Israel to serve the Lord, their God. During his lifetime they did not turn away from following the Lord, the God of their ancestors.#g. [34:33] 2 Kgs 23:4–20.