III. PROBLEMS OF DISCIPLINE
Prayer and Conduct.
1#This marked insistence that the liturgical prayer of the community concern itself with the needs of all, whether Christian or not, and especially of those in authority, may imply that a disposition existed at Ephesus to refuse prayer for pagans. In actuality, such prayer aids the community to achieve peaceful relationships with non-Christians (1 Tm 2:2) and contributes to salvation, since it derives its value from the presence within the community of Christ, who is the one and only savior of all (1 Tm 2:3–6). The vital apostolic mission to the Gentiles (1 Tm 2:7) reflects Christ’s purpose of universal salvation. 1 Tm 2:5 contains what may well have been a very primitive creed. Some interpreters have called it a Christian version of the Jewish shema: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord alone…” (Dt 6:4–5). The assertion in 1 Tm 2:7, “I am speaking the truth, I am not lying,” reminds one of similar affirmations in Rom 9:1; 2 Cor 11:31; and Gal 1:20. First of all, then, I ask that supplications, prayers, petitions, and thanksgivings be offered for everyone,#a. [2:1] Eph 6:18; Phil 4:6. 2for kings and for all in authority, that we may lead a quiet and tranquil life in all devotion and dignity. 3This is good and pleasing to God our savior,#b. [2:3] 1:1; 4:10. 4who wills everyone to be saved and to come to knowledge of the truth.#c. [2:4] 2 Tm 3:7; 2 Pt 3:9.
5For there is one God.
There is also one mediator between God and the human race,
Christ Jesus, himself human,#d. [2:5] 1 Cor 8:6; Heb 8:6; 9:15; 12:24 / Rom 5:15.
6who gave himself as ransom for all.
This was the testimony#The testimony: to make sense of this overly concise phrase, many manuscripts supply “to which” (or “to whom”); two others add “was given.” The translation has supplied “this was.” at the proper time.#e. [2:6] Mk 10:45; Gal 1:4; 2:20; Eph 5:25; Ti 2:14. 7For this I was appointed preacher and apostle (I am speaking the truth, I am not lying), teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth.#f. [2:7] Acts 9:15; 1 Cor 9:1; Gal 2:7–8.
8#The prayer of the community should be unmarred by internal dissension (1 Tm 2:8); cf. Mt 5:21–26; 6:14; Mk 11:25. At the liturgical assembly the dress of women should be appropriate to the occasion (2 Tm 2:9); their chief adornment is to be reputation for good works (2 Tm 2:10). Women are not to take part in the charismatic activity of the assembly (1 Tm 2:11–12; cf. 1 Cor 14:34) or exercise authority; their conduct there should reflect the role of man’s helpmate (2 Tm 2:13; cf. Gn 2:18) and not the later relationship of Eve to Adam (2 Tm 2:14; cf. Gn 3:6–7). As long as women perform their role as wives and mothers in faith and love, their salvation is assured (2 Tm 2:15). It is my wish, then, that in every place the men should pray, lifting up holy hands, without anger or argument. 9Similarly, [too,] women should adorn themselves with proper conduct, with modesty and self-control, not with braided hairstyles and gold ornaments, or pearls, or expensive clothes,#g. [2:9] 1 Pt 3:3–5. 10but rather, as befits women who profess reverence for God, with good deeds.#h. [2:10] 5:10; 1 Pt 3:1. 11A woman must receive instruction silently and under complete control.#i. [2:11–12] 1 Cor 14:34–35. 12I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man.#A man: this could also mean “her husband.” She must be quiet. 13For Adam was formed first, then Eve.#j. [2:13] Gn 1:27; 2:7, 22; 1 Cor 11:8–9. 14Further, Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and transgressed.#k. [2:14] Gn 3:6, 13; 2 Cor 11:3. 15But she will be saved through motherhood, provided women persevere in faith and love and holiness, with self-control.#l. [2:15] 5:14.