1So I returned, and considered all the oppressions that are done under the shemesh, and, hinei, the tears of such as were oppressed, and they had no menachem (comforter); and on the side of their oppressors there was ko'ach (power); but they had no menachem (comforter). 2Wherefore I praised the mesim which are already dead more than the living ones which are yet alive. 3Yea, better is he than both they, which hath not yet been, who hath not seen the ma'aseh harah that is done under the shemesh. 4Again, I considered all amal, and every kishron hama'aseh (skillful achievement), that such is a simple derivative of kinat ish meirei'eihu (the envy of man of his neighbor). This also is hevel, a chasing after ruach. 5The kesil foldeth his hands together, and eateth his own basar. 6Better is a handful with tranquility than both the hands full with amal and chasing after ruach. 7Then I returned, and I saw under the shemesh this hevel: 8There was a man all alone, and there was with him neither ben nor ach (brother); yet there was no ketz (end) to all his amal; neither was his ayin satisfied with osher (riches); neither saith he, For whom do I toil, and deprive my nefesh of tovah? This also is hevel, yea, it is an evil matter. 9Two are better than one because they have a sachar tov for their amal. 10For if they fall, the echad will lift up his partner, but woe to him that is alone when he falleth; for he hath not another to help him up. 11Also, if two lie down, then they have chom (heat), but how can one be warm alone? 12Though echad may be overpowered, shnayim shall withstand him; and a khoot hameshulash (threefold cord) is not quickly broken. 13Better is a poor and a wise yeled than an old and foolish melech, who will no more be admonished. 14For out of the bais hasohar he cometh to reign, although he was born a poor man in his malchut (kingdom). 15I considered all the living ones which walk under the shemesh in the throng of the yeled, that is, the second one that shall enter into the place of the former [melech]. 16There is no ketz of kol haAm, all those at whose head he stands; and yet they who come after shall not rejoice in him. Surely this also is hevel and striving for ruach.