Foods Permitted and Forbidden
1Now the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying to them, 2“Speak to the children of Israel, saying, #Deut. 14:4; Ezek. 4:14; Dan. 1:8; (Matt. 15:11); Acts 10:12, 14; (Rom. 14:14; Heb. 9:10; 13:9)‘These are the animals which you may eat among all the animals that are on the earth: 3Among the animals, whatever divides the hoof, having cloven hooves and chewing the cud—that you may eat. 4Nevertheless these you shall #Acts 10:14not eat among those that chew the cud or those that have cloven hooves: the camel, because it chews the cud but does not have cloven hooves, is unclean to you; 5the rock hyrax, because it chews the cud but does not have cloven hooves, is unclean to you; 6the hare, because it chews the cud but does not have cloven hooves, is unclean to you; 7and the swine, though it divides the hoof, having cloven hooves, yet does not chew the cud, #Is. 65:4; 66:3, 17; Mark 5:1–17is unclean to you. 8Their flesh you shall not eat, and their carcasses you shall not touch. #Is. 52:11; (Mark 7:2, 15, 18); Acts 10:14, 15; 15:29They are unclean to you.
9#Deut. 14:9‘These you may eat of all that are in the water: whatever in the water has fins and scales, whether in the seas or in the rivers—that you may eat. 10But all in the seas or in the rivers that do not have fins and scales, all that move in the water or any living thing which is in the water, they are an #Lev. 7:18, 21; Deut. 14:3abomination to you. 11They shall be an abomination to you; you shall not eat their flesh, but you shall regard their carcasses as an abomination. 12Whatever in the water does not have fins or scales—that shall be an abomination to you.
13#Deut. 14:12–19; Is. 66:17‘And these you shall regard as an abomination among the birds; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, the vulture, the buzzard, 14the kite, and the falcon after its kind; 15every raven after its kind, 16the ostrich, the short-eared owl, the sea gull, and the hawk after its kind; 17the little owl, the fisher owl, and the screech owl; 18the white owl, the jackdaw, and the carrion vulture; 19the stork, the heron after its kind, the hoopoe, and the bat.
20‘All flying insects that creep on all fours shall be an abomination to you. 21Yet these you may eat of every flying insect that creeps on all fours: those which have jointed legs above their feet with which to leap on the earth. 22These you may eat: #Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6the locust after its kind, the destroying locust after its kind, the cricket after its kind, and the grasshopper after its kind. 23But all other flying insects which have four feet shall be an abomination to you.
24‘By these you shall become unclean; whoever touches the carcass of any of them shall be unclean until evening; 25whoever carries part of the carcass of any of them #Lev. 14:8; 15:5; Num. 19:10, 21, 22; 31:24; Zech. 13:1; (Heb. 9:10; 10:22; Rev. 7:14)shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening: 26The carcass of any animal which divides the foot, but is not cloven-hoofed or does not chew the cud, is unclean to you. Everyone who touches it shall be unclean. 27And whatever goes on its paws, among all kinds of animals that go on all fours, those are unclean to you. Whoever touches any such carcass shall be unclean until evening. 28Whoever carries any such carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening. It is unclean to you.
29‘These also shall be unclean to you among the creeping things that creep on the earth: the mole, #Is. 66:17the mouse, and the large lizard after its kind; 30the gecko, the monitor lizard, the sand reptile, the sand lizard, and the chameleon. 31These are unclean to you among all that creep. Whoever #Hag. 2:13touches them when they are dead shall be unclean until evening. 32Anything on which any of them falls, when they are dead shall be unclean, whether it is any item of wood or clothing or skin or sack, whatever item it is, in which any work is done, #Lev. 15:12it must be put in water. And it shall be unclean until evening; then it shall be clean. 33Any #Lev. 6:28earthen vessel into which any of them falls #Lev. 15:12; Ps. 2:9; Jer. 48:38; (2 Tim. 2:21); Rev. 2:27you shall break; and whatever is in it shall be unclean: 34in such a vessel, any edible food upon which water falls becomes unclean, and any drink that may be drunk from it becomes unclean. 35And everything on which a part of any such carcass falls shall be unclean; whether it is an oven or cooking stove, it shall be broken down; for they are unclean, and shall be unclean to you. 36Nevertheless a spring or a cistern, in which there is plenty of water, shall be clean, but whatever touches any such carcass becomes unclean. 37And if a part of any such carcass falls on any planting seed which is to be sown, it remains clean. 38But if water is put on the seed, and if a part of any such carcass falls on it, it becomes unclean to you.
39‘And if any animal which you may eat dies, he who touches its carcass shall be #Hag. 2:11–13unclean until evening. 40#Ex. 22:31; Lev. 17:15; 22:8; Deut. 14:21; Ezek. 4:14; 44:31He who eats of its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening. He also who carries its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening.
41‘And every creeping thing that creeps on the earth shall be an abomination. It shall not be eaten. 42Whatever crawls on its belly, whatever goes on all fours, or whatever has many feet among all creeping things that creep on the earth—these you shall not eat, for they are an abomination. 43#Lev. 20:25You shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creeps; nor shall you make yourselves unclean with them, lest you be defiled by them. 44For I am the Lord your #Ex. 6:7; Lev. 22:33; 25:38; 26:45God. You shall therefore consecrate yourselves, and #Ex. 19:6; Lev. 19:2; 20:7, 26; (Amos 3:3); Matt. 5:48; 1 Thess. 4:7; 1 Pet. 1:15, 16; (Rev. 22:11, 14)you shall be holy; for I am holy. Neither shall you defile yourselves with any creeping thing that creeps on the earth. 45#Ex. 6:7; 20:2; Lev. 22:33; 25:38; 26:45; Ps. 105:43–45; Hos. 11:1For I am the Lord who brings you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God. #Lev. 11:44You shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.
46‘This is the law of the animals and the birds and every living creature that moves in the waters, and of every creature that creeps on the earth, 47#Lev. 10:10; Ezek. 44:23; Mal. 3:18to distinguish between the unclean and the clean, and between the animal that may be eaten and the animal that may not be eaten.’ ”