11
The Fate of the Two Witnesses
1 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative. a measuring rod#tn Grk “a reed” (but these were used for measuring). Cf. Ezek 40:3ff. like a staff was given to me, and I was told,#tn Grk “saying.” “Get up and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and the ones who worship there. 2 But#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. do not measure the outer courtyard#tn On the term αὐλήν (aulhn) BDAG 150 s.v. αὐλή 1 states, “(outer) court of the temple…Rv 11:2.” of the temple; leave it out,#tn The precise meaning of the phrase ἔκβαλε ἔξωθεν (ekbale exwqen) is difficult to determine. because it has been given to the Gentiles,#tn Or “to the nations” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”). and they will trample on the holy city#sn The holy city appears to be a reference to Jerusalem. See also Luke 21:24. for forty-two months. 3 And I will grant my two witnesses authority#tn The word “authority” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. “Power” would be another alternative that could be supplied here. to prophesy for 1,260 days, dressed in sackcloth. 4 (These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.)#sn This description is parenthetical in nature. 5 If#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. anyone wants to harm them, fire comes out of their mouths#tn This is a collective singular in Greek. and completely consumes#tn See L&N 20.45 for the translation of κατεσθίω (katesqiw) as “to destroy utterly, to consume completely.” their enemies. If#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. anyone wants to harm them, they must be killed this way. 6 These two have the power#tn Or “authority.” to close up the sky so that it does not rain during the time#tn Grk “the days.” they are prophesying. They#tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. have power#tn Or “authority.” to turn the waters to blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague whenever they want. 7 When#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. they have completed their testimony, the beast that comes up from the abyss will make war on them and conquer#tn Or “be victorious over”; traditionally, “overcome.” them and kill them. 8 Their#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. corpses will lie in the street#tn The Greek word πλατεῖα (plateia) refers to a major (broad) street (L&N 1.103). of the great city that is symbolically#tn Grk “spiritually.” called Sodom and Egypt, where their Lord was also crucified. 9 For three and a half days those from every#tn The word “every” is not in the Greek text, but is implied by the following list. people, tribe,#tn The Greek term καί (kai) has not been translated before this and the following items in the list, since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more. nation, and language will look at their corpses, because they will not permit them to be placed in a tomb.#tn Or “to be buried.” 10 And those who live on the earth will rejoice over them and celebrate, even sending gifts to each other, because these two prophets had tormented those who live on the earth. 11 But#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. after three and a half days a breath of life from God entered them, and they stood on their feet, and tremendous fear seized#tn Grk “fell upon.” those who were watching them. 12 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision. they#tn Though the nearest antecedent to the subject of ἤκουσαν (hkousan) is the people (“those who were watching them”), it could also be (based on what immediately follows) that the two prophets are the ones who heard the voice. heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them: “Come up here!” So the two prophets#tn Grk “they”; the referent (the two prophets) has been specified in the translation for clarity. went up to heaven in a cloud while#tn The conjunction καί (kai) seems to be introducing a temporal clause contemporaneous in time with the preceding clause. their enemies stared at them. 13 Just then#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. a major earthquake took place and a tenth of the city collapsed; seven thousand people#tn Grk “seven thousand names of men.” were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven.
14 The second woe has come and gone;#tn Grk “has passed.” the third is coming quickly.
The Seventh Trumpet
15 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision. the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven saying:
“The kingdom of the world
has become the kingdom of our Lord
and of his Christ,#tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
and he will reign for ever and ever.”
16 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision. the twenty-four elders who are seated on their thrones before God threw themselves down with their faces to the ground#tn Grk “they fell down on their faces.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.” and worshiped God 17 with these words:#tn Grk “saying.”
“We give you thanks, Lord God, the All-Powerful,#tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…(ὁ) κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”
the one who is and who was,
because you have taken your great power
and begun to reign.#tn The aorist verb ἐβασίλευσας (ebasileusa") has been translated ingressively.
18 The#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. nations#tn Or “The Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”). were enraged,
but#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. your wrath has come,
and the time has come for the dead to be judged,
and the time has come to give to your servants,#tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.
the prophets, their reward,
as well as to the saints
and to those who revere#tn Grk “who fear.” your name, both small and great,
and the time has come#tn The words “the time has come” do not occur except at the beginning of the verse; the phrase has been repeated for emphasis and contrast. The Greek has one finite verb (“has come”) with a compound subject (“your wrath,” “the time”), followed by three infinitive clauses (“to be judged,” “to give,” “to destroy”). The rhetorical power of the repetition of the finite verb in English thus emulates the rhetorical power of its lone instance in Greek. to destroy those who destroy#tn Or “who deprave.” There is a possible wordplay here on two meanings for διαφθείρω (diafqeirw), with the first meaning “destroy” and the second meaning either “to ruin” or “to make morally corrupt.” See L&N 20.40. the earth.”
19 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence on events within the vision. the temple of God in heaven was opened and the ark of his covenant was visible within his temple. And there were flashes of lightning, roaring,#tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).” crashes of thunder, an earthquake, and a great hailstorm.#tn Although BDAG 1075 s.v. χάλαζα gives the meaning “hail” here, it is not clear whether the adjective μεγάλη (megalh) refers to the intensity of the storm or the size of the individual hailstones, or both.
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