The Resurrection
1 Now after the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb. 2 Suddenly there was a severe earthquake, for an angel of the Lord#tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” See the note on the word “Lord” in 1:20. descending from heaven came and rolled away the stone and sat on it. 3 His#tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. appearance was like lightning, and his clothes were white as snow. 4 The#tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. guards were shaken and became like dead men because they were so afraid of him. 5 But the angel said#tn Grk “But answering, the angel said.” This is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation. to the women, “Do not be afraid; I know#tn Grk “for I know.” that you are looking for Jesus, who was crucified.#sn See the note on crucified in 20:19. 6 He is not here, for he has been raised,#tn The verb here is passive (ἠγέρθη, hgerqh). This “divine passive” (see ExSyn 437-38) points to the fact that Jesus was raised by God. just as he said. Come and see the place where he#tc Expansions on the text, especially when the Lord is the subject, are a common scribal activity. In this instance, since the subject is embedded in the verb, three major variants have emerged to make the subject explicit: ὁ κύριος (Jo kurio", “the Lord”; A C D L W 0148 Ë1,13 Ï lat), τὸ σῶμα τοῦ κυρίου (to swma tou kuriou, “the body of the Lord”; 1424 pc), and ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς (Jo Ihsou", “Jesus”; Φ). The reading with no explicit subject, however, is superior on both internal and external grounds, being supported by א B Θ 33 892* pc co. was lying. 7 Then go quickly and tell his disciples, ‘He has been raised from the dead. He#tn Grk “And behold he.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). is going ahead of you into Galilee. You will see him there.’ Listen, I have told you!” 8 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s instructions to tell the disciples. they left the tomb quickly, with fear and great joy, and ran to tell his disciples. 9 But#tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate that the return of the women from the tomb was interrupted by this appearance of Jesus. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). Jesus met them, saying, “Greetings!” They#tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. came to him, held on to his feet and worshiped him. 10 Then Jesus said to them, “Do not be afraid. Go and tell my brothers to go to Galilee. They will see me there.”
The Guards’ Report
11 While#tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. they were going, some#tn Grk “behold, some of the guard.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). of the guard went into the city and told the chief priests everything that had happened. 12 After#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated. they had assembled with the elders and formed a plan, they gave a large sum of money to the soldiers, 13 telling them, “You are to say, ‘His disciples came at night and stole his body#tn Grk “him.” while we were asleep.’ 14 If#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated. this matter is heard before the governor,#tn Here ἐπί (epi) followed by the genitive = “before,” especially in the language of lawsuits (BDAG 363 s.v. 3). we will satisfy him#tc ‡ αὐτόν (auton, “him”) is found after πείσομεν (peisomen, “we will satisfy”) in the majority of witnesses, though it seems to be motivated by a need for clarification and cannot therefore easily explain the rise of the shorter reading (which is found in א B Θ 33 pc). Nevertheless, English style requires the pronoun. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity. and keep you out of trouble.”#tn Grk “and you will not have to be worried” = “we will keep you out of trouble.” 15 So they took the money and did as they were instructed. And this story is told among the Jews to this day.#tc ‡ The word ἡμέρας (Jhmeras, “day”) is found after σήμερον (shmeron, “today, this [day]”) in some early and important witnesses (B D L Θ lat), but may be a clarifying (or perhaps redundant) note. The shorter reading (found in א A W 0148vid Ë1,13 33 Ï) is thus preferred. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating reservations about its authenticity.
The Great Commission
16 So#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ instructions in v. 10. the eleven disciples went to Galilee to the mountain Jesus had designated. 17 When#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated. they saw him, they worshiped him,#tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context. but some doubted.#tn The Greek text reads here οἱ δὲ ἐδίστασαν (Joi de edistasan). Some scholars argue that the article is functioning like a personal pronoun, thus “they doubted” (e.g., D. A. Hagner, Matthew [WBC], 2:884). If so, then all the disciples would be in view. The translation of the text takes οἱ as an alternative pronoun which has a partitive notion (i.e., some of the disciples doubted, but not all). The difficulty with the personal pronoun view is that there are no examples of it in Matthew in which the same subject immediately precedes with its own verb (as would be the case in “they worshiped…they doubted”). Such, in fact, would be quite awkward, for the article would be unnecessary since the pronominal referent is already embedded in the verb. The only reason for the article here would be to distinguish the subject in some way; but if the same subject is in view, no distinction is being made. 18 Then Jesus came up and said to them,#tn Grk “coming, Jesus spoke to them, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn, “saying”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 19 Therefore go#tn “Go…baptize…teach” are participles modifying the imperative verb “make disciples.” According to ExSyn 645 the first participle (πορευθέντες, poreuqentes, “Go”) fits the typical structural pattern for the attendant circumstance participle (aorist participle preceding aorist main verb, with the mood of the main verb usually imperative or indicative) and thus picks up the mood (imperative in this case) from the main verb (μαθητεύσατε, maqhteusate, “make disciples”). This means that semantically the action of “going” is commanded, just as “making disciples” is. As for the two participles that follow the main verb (βαπτίζοντες, baptizontes, “baptizing”; and διδάσκοντες, didaskontes, “teaching”), these do not fit the normal pattern for attendant circumstance participles, since they are present participles and follow the aorist main verb. However, some interpreters do see them as carrying additional imperative force in context. Others regard them as means, manner, or even result. and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,#tc Although some scholars have denied that the trinitarian baptismal formula in the Great Commission was a part of the original text of Matthew, there is no ms support for their contention. F. C. Conybeare, “The Eusebian Form of the Text of Mt. 28:19,” ZNW 2 (1901): 275-88, based his view on a faulty reading of Eusebius’ quotations of this text. The shorter reading has also been accepted, on other grounds, by a few other scholars. For discussion (and refutation of the conjecture that removes this baptismal formula), see B. J. Hubbard, The Matthean Redaction of a Primitive Apostolic Commissioning (SBLDS 19), 163-64, 167-75; and Jane Schaberg, The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (SBLDS 61), 27-29. 20 teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And remember,#tn The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has been translated here as “remember” (BDAG 468 s.v. 1.c). I am with you#sn I am with you. Matthew’s Gospel begins with the prophecy that the Savior’s name would be “Emmanuel, that is, ‘God with us,’” (1:23, in which the author has linked Isa 7:14 and 8:8, 10 together) and it ends with Jesus’ promise to be with his disciples forever. The Gospel of Matthew thus forms an inclusio about Jesus in his relationship to his people that suggests his deity. always, to the end of the age.”#tc Most mss (Ac Θ Ë13 Ï it sy) have ἀμήν (amhn, “amen”) at the end of v. 20. Such a conclusion is routinely added by scribes to NT books because a few of these books originally had such an ending (cf. Rom 16:27; Gal 6:18; Jude 25). A majority of Greek witnesses have the concluding ἀμήν in every NT book except Acts, James, and 3 John (and even in these books, ἀμήν is found in some witnesses). It is thus a predictable variant. Further, no good reason exists for the omission of the particle in significant and early witnesses such as א A* B D W Ë1 33 al lat sa.
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