4
The Temptation of Jesus
1 Then#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate continuity with the previous topic. Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan River#tn “River” is not in the Greek text but is supplied for clarity. and was led by the Spirit#sn The double mention of the Spirit in this verse makes it clear that the temptation was neither the fault of Jesus nor an accident. in#tc Most mss (A Θ Ξ Ψ 0102 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat) read εἰς τὴν ἔρημον (ei" thn erhmon, “into the wilderness”), apparently motivated by the parallel in Matt 4:1. However, the reading behind the translation (ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, en th ejrhmw) is found in overall better witnesses (Ì4vid,7,75vid א B D L W 579 892 1241 pc it). the wilderness,#tn Or “desert.” 2 where for forty days he endured temptations#tn Grk “in the desert, for forty days being tempted.” The participle πειραζόμενος (peirazomeno") has been translated as an adverbial clause in English to avoid a run-on sentence with a second “and.” Here the present participle suggests a period of forty days of testing. Three samples of the end of the testing are given in the following verses. from the devil. He#tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. ate nothing#sn The reference to Jesus eating nothing could well be an idiom meaning that he ate only what the desert provided; see Exod 34:28. A desert fast simply meant eating only what one could obtain in the desert. The parallel in Matt 4:2 speaks only of Jesus fasting. during those days, and when they were completed,#tn The Greek word here is συντελεσθείσων (suntelesqeiswn) from the verb συντελέω (suntelew).sn This verb and its cognate noun, sunteleia, usually implies not just the end of an event, but its completion or fulfillment. The noun is always used in the NT in eschatological contexts; the verb is often so used (cf. Matt 13:39, 40; 24:3; 28:20; Mark 13:4; Rom 9:28; Heb 8:8; 9:26). The idea here may be that the forty-day period of temptation was designed for a particular purpose in the life of Christ (the same verb is used in v. 13). The cognate verb teleiow is a key NT term for the completion of God’s plan: See Luke 12:50; 22:37; John 19:30; and (where it has the additional component of meaning “to perfect”) Heb 2:10; 5:8-9; 7:28. he was famished. 3 The devil said to him, “If#tn This is a first class condition: “If (and let’s assume that you are) the Son of God…” you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread.”#tn Grk “say to this stone that it should become bread.” 4 Jesus answered him, “It is written, ‘Man#tn Or “a person.” The Greek word ὁ ἄνθρωπος (Jo anqrwpo") is used generically for humanity. The translation “man” is used because the emphasis in Jesus’ response seems to be on his dependence on God as a man. does not live by bread alone.’”#tc Most mss (A [D] Θ Ψ [0102] Ë1,13 33 Ï latt) complete the citation with ἀλλ᾿ ἐπὶ παντὶ ῥήματι θεοῦ (ajll’ ejpi panti rJhmati qeou, “but by every word from God”), an assimilation to Matt 4:4 (which is a quotation of Deut 8:3). The shorter reading is found in א B L W 1241 pc sa. There is no good reason why scribes would omit the rest of the quotation here. The shorter reading, on both internal and external grounds, should be considered the original wording in Luke.sn A quotation from Deut 8:3. Jesus will live by doing God’s will, and will take no shortcuts.
5 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. sn The order of Luke’s temptations differs from Matthew’s at this point as numbers two and three are reversed. It is slightly more likely that Luke has made the change to put the Jerusalem temptation last, as Jerusalem is so important to Luke’s later account. The temporal markers in Matthew’s account are also slightly more specific. the devil#tn Grk “he.” led him up#tc Most mss (א1 A [D W] Θ Ψ 0102 Ë1,[13] 33 700 2542 Ï it) refer to Jesus being taken up “to a high mountain” (with many of these also explicitly adding “the devil”) here in parallel with Matt 4:8, but both scribal harmonization to that text and the pedigree of the witnesses for the shorter reading (א* B L 1241 pc) is the reason it should be omitted from Luke. to a high place#tn “A high place” is not in the Greek text but has been supplied for clarity. and showed him in a flash all the kingdoms of the world. 6 And he#tn Grk “And the devil.” said to him, “To you#sn In Greek, this phrase is in an emphatic position. In effect, the devil is tempting Jesus by saying, “Look what you can have!” I will grant this whole realm#tn Or “authority.” BDAG 353 s.v. ἐξουσία 6 suggests, concerning this passage, that the term means “the sphere in which the power is exercised, domain.” Cf. also Luke 22:53; 23:7; Acts 26:18; Eph 2:2. – and the glory that goes along with it,#tn The addendum referring to the glory of the kingdoms of the world forms something of an afterthought, as the following pronoun (“it”) makes clear, for the singular refers to the realm itself. for it has been relinquished#tn For the translation of παραδέδοται (paradedotai) see L&N 57.77. The devil is erroneously implying that God has given him such authority with the additional capability of sharing the honor. to me, and I can give it to anyone I wish. 7 So then, if#tn This is a third class condition: “If you worship me (and I am not saying whether you will or will not)…” you will worship#tn Or “will prostrate yourself in worship before…” The verb προσκυνέω (proskunew) can allude not only to the act of worship but the position of the worshiper. See L&N 53.56. me, all this will be#tn One could translate this phrase “it will all be yours.” The sense is the same, but the translation given is a touch more emphatic and more likely to catch the force of the offer. yours.” 8 Jesus#tn Grk “And Jesus.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. answered him,#tc Most mss, especially the later ones (A Θ Ψ 0102 Ë13 Ï it), have “Get behind me, Satan!” at the beginning of the quotation. This roughly parallels Matt 4:10 (though the Lukan mss add ὀπίσω μου to read ὕπαγε ὀπίσω μου, σατανᾶ [{upage opisw mou, satana]); for this reason the words are suspect as a later addition to make the two accounts agree more precisely. A similar situation occurred in v. 5. “It is written, ‘You are to worship#tn Or “You will prostrate yourself in worship before…” The verb προσκυνέω (proskunew) can allude not only to the act of worship but the position of the worshiper. See L&N 53.56. the Lord#tc Most later mss (A Θ 0102 Ï) alter the word order by moving the verb forward in the quotation. This alteration removes the emphasis from “the Lord your God” as the one to receive worship (as opposed to Satan) by moving it away from the beginning of the quotation.sn In the form of the quotation in the Greek text found in the best mss, it is the unique sovereignty of the Lord that has the emphatic position. your God and serve only him.’”#sn A quotation from Deut 6:13. The word “only” is an interpretive expansion not found in either the Hebrew or Greek (LXX) text of the OT.
9 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. the devil#tn Grk “he”; the referent (the devil) has been specified in the translation for clarity. brought him to Jerusalem,#map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. had him stand#tn Grk “and stood him.” on the highest point of the temple,#sn The reference to the highest point of the temple probably refers to the one point on the temple’s southeast corner where the site looms directly over a cliff some 450 feet (135 m) high. However, some have suggested the reference could be to the temple’s high gate. and said to him, “If#tn This is another first class condition, as in v. 3. you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here, 10 for it is written, ‘He will command his angels concerning you, to protect you,’#sn A quotation from Ps 91:11 by the devil. This was not so much an incorrect citation as a use in a wrong context (a misapplication of the passage). 11 and ‘with their hands they will lift you up, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.’”#sn A quotation from Ps 91:12. 12 Jesus#tn Grk “And Jesus.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. answered him,#tn Grk “Jesus, answering, said to him.” This is redundant in English and has been simplified to “Jesus answered him.” “It is said, ‘You are not to put the Lord your God to the test.’”#sn A quotation from Deut 6:16 used by Jesus in reply to the devil. The point is that God’s faithfulness should not be put to the test, but is rather a given. 13 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate a summary. when the devil#tn Grk “he”; the referent (the devil) has been specified in the translation for clarity. had completed every temptation, he departed from him until a more opportune time.#tn Grk “until a favorable time.”sn Until a more opportune time. Though some have argued that the devil disappears until Luke 22:3, this is unlikely since the cosmic battle with Satan and all the evil angels is consistently mentioned throughout Luke (8:26-39; 11:14-23).
The Beginning of Jesus’ Ministry in Galilee
14 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Jesus, in the power of the Spirit,#sn Once again Jesus is directed by the Spirit. Luke makes a point about Jesus’ association with the Spirit early in his ministry (3:22, 4:1 [2x]; 4:18). returned to Galilee, and news about him spread#tn Grk “went out.” throughout the surrounding countryside.#tn Grk “all the surrounding region.” 15 He#tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. began to teach#tn The imperfect verb has been translated ingressively. in their synagogues#sn The next incident in Luke 4:16-30 is probably to be seen as an example of this ministry of teaching in their synagogues in Galilee. Synagogues were places for Jewish prayer and worship, with recognized leadership (cf. Luke 8:41). Though the origin of the synagogue is not entirely clear, it seems to have arisen in the postexilic community during the intertestamental period. A town could establish a synagogue if there were at least ten men. In normative Judaism of the NT period, the OT scripture was read and discussed in the synagogue by the men who were present (see the Mishnah, m. Megillah 3-4; m. Berakhot 2). and was praised#tn Grk “being glorified.” The participle δοξαζόμενος (doxazomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. This is the only place Luke uses the verb δοξάζω (doxazw) of Jesus. by all.
Rejection at Nazareth
16 Now#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. came to Nazareth,#sn Nazareth was Jesus’ hometown (which is why he is known as Jesus of Nazareth) about 20 miles (30 km) southwest from Capernaum.map For location see Map1-D3; Map2-C2; Map3-D5; Map4-C1; Map5-G3. where he had been brought up, and went into the synagogue#sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15. on the Sabbath day, as was his custom.#tn Grk “according to his custom.” He#tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. stood up to read,#sn In normative Judaism of the period, the OT scripture was read and discussed in the synagogue by the men who were present. See the Mishnah, m. Megillah 3-4; m. Berakhot 2. First came the law, then the prophets, then someone was asked to speak on the texts. Normally one stood up to read out of respect for the scriptures, and then sat down (v. 20) to expound them. 17 and the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. He#tn Grk “And unrolling the scroll he found.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Instead a new sentence has been started in the translation. unrolled#tn Grk “opening,” but a scroll of this period would have to be unrolled. The participle ἀναπτύξας (anaptuxa") has been translated as a finite verb due to the requirements of contemporary English style. the scroll and found the place where it was written,
18The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
because he has anointed#sn The phrase he has anointed me is an allusion back to Jesus’ baptism in Luke 3:21-22. me to proclaim good news#tn Grk “to evangelize,” “to preach the gospel.” to the poor.#sn The poor is a key term in Luke. It refers to the pious poor and indicates Jesus’ desire to reach out to those the world tends to forget or mistreat. It is like 1:52 in force and also will be echoed in 6:20 (also 1 Pet 2:11-25). Jesus is commissioned to do this.
He has sent me#tc The majority of mss, especially the later Byzantines, include the phrase “to heal the brokenhearted” at this point (A Θ Ψ 0102 Ë1 Ï). The phrase is lacking in several weighty mss (א B D L W Ξ Ë13 33 579 700 892* pc lat sys co), including representatives from both the Alexandrian and Western texttypes. From the standpoint of external evidence, the omission of the phrase is more likely original. When internal evidence is considered, the shorter reading becomes almost certain. Scribes would be much more prone to add the phrase here to align the text with Isa 61:1, the source of the quotation, than to remove it from the original. to proclaim release#sn The release in view here is comprehensive, both at a physical level and a spiritual one, as the entire ministry of Jesus makes clear (Luke 1:77-79; 7:47; 24:47; Acts 2:38; 5:31; 10:43). to the captives
and the regaining of sight#sn Again, as with the previous phrase, regaining of sight may well mean more than simply miraculously restoring physical sight, which itself pictures a deeper reality (Luke 1:77-79; 18:35-43). to the blind,
to set free#sn The essence of Jesus’ messianic work is expressed in the phrase to set free. This line from Isa 58 says that Jesus will do what the nation had failed to do. It makes the proclamation messianic, not merely prophetic, because Jesus doesn’t just proclaim the message – he brings the deliverance. The word translated set free is the same Greek word (ἄφεσις, afesi") translated release earlier in the verse. those who are oppressed,#sn Again, as with the previous phrases, oppressed may well mean more than simply political or economic oppression, but a deeper reality of oppression by sin (Luke 1:77-79; 18:35-43).
19 to proclaim the year#sn The year of the Lord’s favor (Grk “the acceptable year of the Lord”) is a description of the year of Jubilee (Lev 25:10). The year of the total forgiveness of debt is now turned into a metaphor for salvation. Jesus had come to proclaim that God was ready to forgive sin totally. of the Lords favor.#sn A quotation from Isa 61:1-2a. Within the citation is a line from Isa 58:6, with its reference to setting the oppressed free.
20 Then#tn Grk “And closing.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the transition to a new topic. he rolled up#tn Grk “closing,” but a scroll of this period would have to be rolled up. The participle πτύξας (ptuxas) has been translated as a finite verb due to the requirements of contemporary English style. the scroll, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of everyone in the synagogue were fixed on#tn Or “gazing at,” “staring at.” him. 21 Then#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. he began to tell them, “Today#sn See the note on today in 2:11. this scripture has been fulfilled even as you heard it being read.”#tn Grk “in your hearing.” 22 All#tn Grk “And all.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. were speaking well of him, and were amazed at the gracious words coming out of his mouth. They#tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. said, “Isn’t this#sn The form of the question assumes a positive reply. It really amounts to an objection, as Jesus’ response in the next verses shows. Jesus spoke smoothly and impressively. He made a wonderful declaration, but could a local carpenter’s son make such an offer? That was their real question. Joseph’s son?” 23 Jesus#tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. said to them, “No doubt you will quote to me the proverb, ‘Physician, heal yourself!’#sn The proverb Physician, heal yourself! means that Jesus should prove his claims. It is a “Prove it to us!” mentality that Jesus says the people have. and say, ‘What we have heard that you did in Capernaum,#sn The remark “What we have heard that you did at Capernaum” makes many suspect that Luke has moved this event forward in sequence to typify what Jesus’ ministry was like, since the ministry in Capernaum follows in vv. 31-44. The location of this event in the parallel of Mark 6:1-6 also suggests this transposition.map For location see Map1-D2; Map2-C3; Map3-B2. do here in your hometown too.’” 24 And he added,#tn Grk “said,” but since this is a continuation of previous remarks, “added” is used here. “I tell you the truth,#tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.” no prophet is acceptable#sn Jesus argues that he will get no respect in his own hometown. There is a wordplay here on the word acceptable (δεκτός, dektos), which also occurs in v. 19: Jesus has declared the “acceptable” year of the Lord (here translated year of the Lord’s favor), but he is not “accepted” by the people of his own hometown. in his hometown. 25 But in truth I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in Elijah’s days,#sn Elijah’s days. Jesus, by discussing Elijah and Elisha, pictures one of the lowest periods in Israel’s history. These examples, along with v. 24, also show that Jesus is making prophetic claims as well as messianic ones. See 1 Kgs 17-18. when the sky#tn Or “the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. Since the context here refers to a drought (which produced the famine), “sky” is preferable. was shut up three and a half years, and#tn Grk “as.” The particle ὡς can also function temporally (see BDAG 1105-6 s.v. 8). there was a great famine over all the land. 26 Yet#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast. Elijah was sent to none of them, but only to a woman who was a widow at Zarephath in Sidon.#sn Zarephath in Sidon was Gentile territory (see 1 Kgs 17:9-24). Jesus’ point was that he would be forced to minister elsewhere, and the implication is that this ministry would ultimately extend (through the work of his followers) to those outside the nation.map For location see Map1-A1; JP3-F3; JP4-F3. 27 And there were many lepers in Israel in the time of the prophet Elisha,#sn On Elisha see 2 Kgs 5:1-14. yet#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast. none of them was cleansed except Naaman the Syrian.”#sn The reference to Naaman the Syrian (see 2 Kgs 5:1-24) is another example where an outsider and Gentile was blessed. The stress in the example is the missed opportunity of the people to experience God’s work, but it will still go on without them. 28 When they heard this, all the people#tn The words “the people” are not in the Greek text but have been supplied. in the synagogue were filled with rage. 29 They got up, forced#tn Grk “cast.” him out of the town,#tn Or “city.” and brought him to the brow of the hill on which their town was built, so that#tn The Greek conjunction ὥστε (Jwste) here indicates their purpose. they could throw him down the cliff.#sn The attempt to throw him down the cliff looks like “lynch law,” but it may really be an indication that Jesus was regarded as a false prophet who was worthy of death (Deut 13:5). Such a sentence meant being thrown into a pit and then stoned. 30 But he passed through the crowd#tn Grk “their midst.” and went on his way.#tn The verb πορεύομαι (poreuomai) in Luke often suggests divine direction, “to go in a led direction” (4:42; 7:6, 11; 9:51, 52, 56, 57; 13:33; 17:11; 22:22, 29; 24:28). It could suggest that Jesus is on a journey, a theme that definitely is present later in Luke 9-19.
Ministry in Capernaum
31 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the continuation of the topic; in light of his rejection at Nazareth, Jesus went on to Capernaum. he went down to Capernaum,#sn Capernaum was a town on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region, and it became the hub of operations for Jesus’ Galilean ministry.map For location see Map1-D2; Map2-C3; Map3-B2. a town#tn Or “city.” in Galilee, and on the Sabbath he began to teach the people.#tn Grk “them”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 32 They#tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. were amazed#sn They were amazed. The astonishment shown here is like that in Luke 2:48. at his teaching, because he spoke#tn Grk “because his word was.” with authority.#sn Jesus’ teaching impressed the hearers with the directness of its claim (with authority). A study of Jewish rabbinic interpretation shows that it was typical to cite a list of authorities to make one’s point. Apparently Jesus addressed the issues in terms of his own understanding.
33 Now#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a specific example of how Jesus spoke with authority (v. 32). in the synagogue#sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15. there was a man who had the spirit of an unclean#tn Grk “having an unclean, demonic spirit,” that is, an evil spirit. This is the only place Luke uses this lengthy phrase. Normally he simply says an “unclean spirit.” demon, and he cried out with a loud voice, 34 “Ha! Leave us alone,#tn Grk “What to us and to you?” This is an idiom meaning, “We have nothing to do with one another,” or “Why bother us!” The phrase τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί (ti Jhmin kai soi) is Semitic in origin, though it made its way into colloquial Greek (BDAG 275 s.v. ἐγώ). The equivalent Hebrew expression in the Old Testament had two basic meanings: (1) When one person was unjustly bothering another, the injured party could say “What to me and to you?” meaning, “What have I done to you that you should do this to me?” (Judg 11:12; 2 Chr 35:21; 1 Kgs 17:18). (2) When someone was asked to get involved in a matter he felt was no business of his, he could say to the one asking him, “What to me and to you?” meaning, “That is your business, how am I involved?” (2 Kgs 3:13; Hos 14:8). Option (1) implies hostility, while option (2) merely implies disengagement. BDAG suggests the following as glosses for this expression: What have I to do with you? What have we in common? Leave me alone! Never mind! Hostility between Jesus and the demons is certainly to be understood in this context, hence the translation: “Leave me alone….” For a very similar expression, see Luke 8:28 and (in a different context) John 2:4. Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One#sn The confession of Jesus as the Holy One here is significant, coming from an unclean spirit. Jesus, as the Holy One of God, who bears God’s Spirit and is the expression of holiness, comes to deal with uncleanness and unholiness. of God.” 35 But#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast involved in Jesus’ reply. Jesus rebuked him:#tn Grk “rebuked him, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated. “Silence! Come out of him!”#sn The command Come out of him! is an example of Jesus’ authority (see v. 32). Unlike other exorcists, Jesus did not use magical incantations nor did he invoke anyone else’s name. Then, after the demon threw the man#tn Grk “him”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity. down in their midst, he came out of him without hurting him.#sn The departure of the evil spirit from the man without hurting him shows Jesus’ total deliverance and protection of this individual. 36 They#tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. were all amazed and began to say#tn This imperfect verb has been translated as an ingressive imperfect. to one another, “What’s happening here?#tn Grk “What is this word?” The Greek term λόγος (logos) has a wide range of meaning. Here it seems to mean, “What is this matter?” More idiomatically it would be, “What’s going on here?!” For with authority and power#sn The phrase with authority and power is in an emphatic position in the Greek text. Once again the authority of Jesus is the point, but now it is not just his teaching that is emphasized, but his ministry. Jesus combined word and deed into a powerful testimony in Capernaum. he commands the unclean spirits, and they come out!” 37 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate resultative nature of the action. the news#tn That is, “information concerning a person or an event – ‘report, news, word, information’” (L&N 33.211). about him spread into all areas of the region.#sn Given Luke 4:31, the phrase the region is a reference to Galilee.
38 After Jesus left#tn Grk “Arising from the synagogue, he entered.” The participle ἀναστάς (anastas) has been taken temporally here, and the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. the synagogue, he entered Simon’s house. Now Simon’s mother-in-law was suffering from a high fever, and they asked Jesus#tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. to help her.#tn Grk “they asked him about her.” It is clear from the context that they were concerned about her physical condition. The verb “to help” in the translation makes this explicit. 39 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the resultative nature of Jesus’ actions. he stood over her, commanded#tn Or “rebuked,” but “rebuke” implies strong disapproval, while the usage here involves more of a command with perhaps the implication of a threat (L&N 33.331).sn The language here (commanded) almost treats the illness as a personal force (see vv. 35, 41), but this is not the case. This healing shows Jesus’ power over sickness and should not be construed as an exorcism. the fever, and it left her. Immediately#tn Grk “and immediately.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, δέ (de) has not been translated here. Instead a new sentence is started in the translation.sn The note that this happened immediately shows the speed and totality of the recovery. she got up and began to serve#tn The imperfect verb has been translated ingressively. them.
40 As the sun was setting, all those who had any relatives#tn Grk “everyone, as many as had those being sick.” The use of εἶχον (eicon, “had”) suggests that the subject of the accusative participle ἀσθενοῦντας (asqenountas, “those being sick”) is not simply acquaintances, but rather relatives, perhaps immediate family, and certainly close friends. sick with various diseases brought them to Jesus.#tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. He placed#tn Or “laid.” The participle ἐπιτεθείς (epiteqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. his hands on every one of them and healed them. 41 Demons also came out#sn Demons also came out. Note how Luke distinguishes healing from exorcism here, implying that the two are not identical. of many, crying out,#tn Grk “crying out and saying.” The participle λέγοντα (legonta) is redundant in English and has not been translated here. “You are the Son of God!”#tc Most mss (A Q Θ Ψ 0102 Ë1,13 Ï) read “the Christ, the Son of God.” But the earliest and best mss, along with several other witnesses (א B C D L W Ξ 33 579 700 1241 2542 lat sa), lack “the Christ” here. It is likely that later scribes wished to bring the demons’ confession in line with what Luke says they knew later in the verse. But he rebuked#tn Or “commanded,” but “rebuke” implies strong disapproval, which seems to be more in keeping with the context here (L&N 33.419). them, and would not allow them to speak,#sn Jesus would not allow the demons to speak because the time for such disclosure was not yet at hand, and such a revelation would have certainly been misunderstood by the people. In all likelihood, if the people had understood him early on to be the Son of God, or Messiah, they would have reduced his mission to one of political deliverance from Roman oppression (cf. John 6:15). Jesus wanted to avoid, as much as possible, any premature misunderstanding about who he was and what he was doing. However, at the end of his ministry, he did not deny such a title when the high priest asked him (22:66-71). because they knew that he was the Christ.#tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn Note how Luke associates Son of God with Messiah (Christ) in this context, a regal connection with OT roots (Ps 2:7). Also, see the note on Christ in 2:11.
42 The next morning#tn Grk “When it became day.” Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. departed and went to a deserted place. Yet#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate that the crowds still sought Jesus in spite of his withdrawal. the crowds were seeking him, and they came to him and tried to keep him from leaving them. 43 But Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. said to them, “I must#tn Here δεῖ (dei, “it is necessary”) indicates divine commission (cf. Luke 2:49). proclaim the good news of the kingdom#sn The good news of the kingdom, the kingdom of the rule of God through the Messiah, is the topic of Jesus’ preaching. of God to the other towns#tn Or “cities.” too, for that is what I was sent#sn Jesus was sent by God for this purpose. This is the language of divine commission. to do.”#tn Grk “because for this purpose I was sent.” 44 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the summarization. he continued to preach in the synagogues of Judea.#tc Most mss (A D Θ Ψ Ë13 33 Ï latt) have “of Galilee”; others, “of the Jews” (W). “Judea” (read by Ì75 א B Q 579 892 pc sa, and [with minor variation] C L Ë1 1241) is probably the original reading since it is both the harder reading and supported by the best witnesses. “Galilee” is an assimilation to Mark 1:39 and Matt 4:23.
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