The Widow’s Offering
1 Jesus#tn Grk “He”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated. looked up#tn Grk “looking up, he saw.” The participle ἀναβλέψας (anableya") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. and saw the rich putting their gifts into the offering box.#tn On the term γαζοφυλάκιον (gazofulakion), often translated “treasury,” see BDAG 186 s.v., which states, “For Mk 12:41, 43; Lk 21:1 the mng. contribution box or receptacle is attractive. Acc. to Mishnah, Shekalim 6, 5 there were in the temple 13 such receptacles in the form of trumpets. But even in these passages the general sense of ‘treasury’ is prob., for the contributions would go [into] the treasury via the receptacles.” Based upon the extra-biblical evidence (see sn following), however, the translation opts to refer to the actual receptacles and not the treasury itself.sn The offering box probably refers to the receptacles in the temple forecourt by the Court of Women used to collect freewill offerings. These are mentioned by Josephus, J. W. 5.5.2 (5.200), 6.5.2 (6.282); Ant. 19.6.1 (19.294); and in 1 Macc 14:49 and 2 Macc 3:6, 24, 28, 40 (see also Mark 12:41; John 8:20). 2 He also saw a poor widow put in two small copper coins.#sn These two small copper coins were lepta (sing. “lepton”), the smallest and least valuable coins in circulation in Palestine, worth one-half of a quadrans or 1/128 of a denarius, or about six minutes of an average daily wage. This was next to nothing in value. 3 He#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. said, “I tell you the truth,#tn Grk “Truly, I say to you.” this poor widow has put in more than all of them.#sn Has put in more than all of them. With God, giving is weighed evaluatively, not counted. The widow was praised because she gave sincerely and at some considerable cost to herself. 4 For they all offered their gifts out of their wealth.#tn Grk “out of what abounded to them.” But she, out of her poverty, put in everything she had to live on.”#tn Or “put in her entire livelihood.”
The Signs of the End of the Age
5 Now#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. while some were speaking about the temple, how it was adorned#sn The Jerusalem temple was widely admired around the world. See Josephus, Ant. 15.11 (15.380-425); J. W. 5.5 (5.184-227) and Tacitus, History 5.8, who called it “immensely opulent.” Josephus compared it to a beautiful snowcapped mountain. with beautiful stones and offerings,#tn For the translation of ἀνάθημα (anaqhma) as “offering” see L&N 53.18. Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. said, 6 “As for these things that you are gazing at, the days will come when not one stone will be left on another.#sn With the statement days will come when not one stone will be left on another Jesus predicted the total destruction of the temple, something that did occur in a.d. 70. All will be torn down!”#tn Grk “the days will come when not one stone will be left on another that will not be thrown down.” 7 So#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments about the temple’s future destruction. they asked him,#tn Grk “asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated. “Teacher, when will these things#sn Both references to these things are plural, so more than the temple’s destruction is in view. The question may presuppose that such a catastrophe signals the end. happen? And what will be the sign that#tn Grk “when.” these things are about to take place?” 8 He#tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. said, “Watch out#tn Or “Be on guard.” that you are not misled. For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am he,’#tn That is, “I am the Messiah.” and, ‘The time is near.’ Do not follow them! 9 And when you hear of wars and rebellions,#tn Social and political chaos also precedes the end. This term refers to revolutions (L&N 39.34). do not be afraid.#tn This is not the usual term for fear, but refers to a deep sense of terror and emotional distress (Luke 24:37; BDAG 895 s.v. πτοέω). For these things must happen first, but the end will not come at once.”#sn The end will not come at once. This remark about timing not only indicates that there will be events before the end, but that some time will also pass before it comes.
Persecution of Disciples
10 Then he said to them, “Nation will rise up in arms#tn For the translation “rise up in arms” see L&N 55.2. against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. 11 There will be great earthquakes, and famines#sn See Isa 5:13-14; 13:6-16; Hag 2:6-7; Zech 14:4. and plagues in various places, and there will be terrifying sights#tn This term, φόβητρον (fobhtron), occurs only here in the NT. It could refer to an object, event, or condition that causes fear, but in the context it is linked with great signs from heaven, so the translation “sights” was preferred. and great signs#sn See Jer 4:13-22; 14:12; 21:6-7. from heaven. 12 But before all this,#sn But before all this. Another note of timing is present, this one especially important in understanding the sequence in the discourse. Before the things noted in vv. 8-11 are the events of vv. 12-19. they will seize#tn Grk “will lay their hands on you.” you and persecute you, handing you over to the synagogues#sn Some of the persecution is of Jewish origin (the synagogues). Some fulfillment of this can be seen in Acts. See the note on synagogues in 4:15. and prisons. You#tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. will be brought before kings and governors because of my name. 13 This will be a time for you to serve as witnesses.#tn Grk “This will turn out to you for [a] testimony.” 14 Therefore be resolved#tn Grk “determine in your hearts.” not to rehearse#tn This term could refer to rehearsing a speech or a dance. On its syntax, see BDF §392.2. ahead of time how to make your defense. 15 For I will give you the words#tn Grk “a mouth.” It is a metonymy and refers to the reply the Lord will give to them. along with the wisdom#tn Grk “and wisdom.” that none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. 16 You will be betrayed even by parents,#sn To confess Christ might well mean rejection by one’s own family, even by parents. brothers, relatives,#tn Grk “and brothers and relatives,” but καί (kai) has not been translated twice here since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more. and friends, and they will have some of you put to death. 17 You will be hated by everyone because of my name.#sn See Luke 6:22, 27; 1 Cor 1:25-31. 18 Yet#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context. not a hair of your head will perish.#sn Given v. 16, the expression not a hair of your head will perish must be taken figuratively and refer to living ultimately in the presence of God. 19 By your endurance#sn By your endurance is a call to remain faithful, because trusting in Jesus is the means to life. you will gain#tc Some important Greek witnesses plus the majority of mss (א D L W Ψ Ë1 Ï) read the aorist imperative κτήσασθε (kthsasqe) here, though some mss (A B Θ Ë13 33 pc lat sa) read the future indicative κτήσεσθε (kthsesqe). A decision is difficult because the evidence is so evenly balanced, but the aorist imperative is the harder reading and better explains the rise of the other. J. A. Fitzmyer assesses the translation options this way: “In English one has to use something similar [i.e., a future indicative], even if one follows the [aorist imperative]” (Luke [AB], 2:1341); in the same vein, although this translation follows the aorist imperative, because of English requirements it has been translated as though it were a future indicative. your lives.#tn Grk “your souls,” but ψυχή (yuch) is frequently used of one’s physical life. In light of v. 16 that does not seem to be the case here. The entire phrase could be taken as an idiom meaning “you will save yourselves” (L&N 21.20), or (as in v. 18) this could refer to living ultimately in the presence of God.
The Desolation of Jerusalem
20 “But when you see Jerusalem#map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. surrounded#sn See Luke 19:41-44. This passage refers to the events associated with the fall of Jerusalem, when the city is surrounded by armies. by armies, then know that its#tn Grk “her,” referring to the city of Jerusalem (the name “Jerusalem” in Greek is a feminine noun). desolation#sn The phrase its desolation is a reference to the fall of the city, which is the only antecedent present in Luke’s account. The parallels to this in Matt 24:15 and Mark 13:14 refer to the temple’s desolation, though Matthew’s allusion is clearer. They focus on the parallel events of the end, not on the short term realization in a.d. 70. The entire passage has a prophetic “two events in one” typology, where the near term destruction (a.d. 70) is like the end. So the evangelists could choose to focus on the near time realization (Luke) or on its long term fulfillment, which mirrors it (Matthew, Mark). has come near. 21 Then those who are in Judea must flee#sn Fleeing to the mountains is a key OT image: Gen 19:17; Judg 6:2; Isa 15:5; Jer 16:16; Zech 14:5. to the mountains. Those#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. who are inside the city must depart. Those#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. who are out in the country must not enter it, 22 because these are days of vengeance,#tn Or “of punishment.” This is a time of judgment. to fulfill#tn The passive construction with the infinitive πλησθῆναι (plhsqhnai) has been translated as an active construction for simplicity, in keeping with contemporary English style. all that is written. 23 Woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing their babies in those days! For there will be great distress#sn Great distress means that this is a period of great judgment. on the earth and wrath against this people. 24 They#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. will fall by the edge#tn Grk “by the mouth of the sword” (an idiom for the edge of a sword). of the sword and be led away as captives#sn Here is the predicted judgment against the nation until the time of Gentile rule has passed: Its people will be led away as captives. among all nations. Jerusalem#tn Grk “And Jerusalem.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. will be trampled down by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.#sn Until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled implies a time when Israel again has a central role in God’s plan.
The Arrival of the Son of Man
25 “And there will be signs in the sun and moon and stars,#sn Signs in the sun and moon and stars are cosmic signs that turn our attention to the end and the Son of Man’s return for the righteous. OT imagery is present: See Isa 13:9-10; 24:18-20; 34:4; Ezek 32:7-8; Joel 2:1, 30-31; 3:15. and on the earth nations will be in distress,#tn Grk “distress of nations.” anxious#tn Or “in consternation” (L&N 32.9). over the roaring of the sea and the surging waves. 26 People will be fainting from fear#tn According to L&N 23.184 this could be mainly a psychological experience rather than actual loss of consciousness. It could also refer to complete discouragement because of fear, leading people to give up hope (L&N 25.293). and from the expectation of what is coming on the world, for the powers of the heavens will be shaken.#sn An allusion to Isa 34:4. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely. 27 Then#tn Grk “And then” (καὶ τότε, kai tote). Here καί has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. they will see the Son of Man arriving in a cloud#sn An allusion to Dan 7:13. Here is Jesus returning with full judging authority. with power and great glory. 28 But when these things#sn These things are all the events of vv. 8-27. Disciples represent the righteous here. The events surrounding the fall of the nation are a down payment on a fuller judgment to come on all humanity. The presence of one guarantees the other. begin to happen, stand up and raise your heads, because your redemption#sn With Jesus’ return comes the manifestation of judgment and final salvation (redemption). is drawing near.”
The Parable of the Fig Tree
29 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. he told them a parable: “Look at the fig tree and all the other trees.#tn Grk “all the trees.” 30 When they sprout leaves, you see#tn Grk “seeing for yourselves, you know.” The participle βλέποντες (bleponte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. for yourselves and know that summer is now near. 31 So also you, when you see these things happening, know#tn The verb γινώσκετε (ginwskete, “know”) can be parsed as either present indicative or present imperative. In this context the imperative fits better, since the movement is from analogy (trees and seasons) to the future (the signs of the coming of the kingdom) and since the emphasis is on preparation for this event. that the kingdom of God#sn The kingdom of God refers here to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37. is near. 32 I tell you the truth,#tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.” this generation#sn This is one of the hardest verses in the gospels to interpret. Various views exist for what generation means. (1) Some take it as meaning “race” and thus as an assurance that the Jewish race (nation) will not pass away. But it is very questionable that the Greek term γενεά (genea) can have this meaning. Two other options are possible. (2) Generation might mean “this type of generation” and refer to the generation of wicked humanity. Then the point is that humanity will not perish, because God will redeem it. Or (3) generation may refer to “the generation that sees the signs of the end” (vv. 25-26), who will also see the end itself. In other words, once the movement to the return of Christ starts, all the events connected with it happen very quickly, in rapid succession. will not pass away until all these things take place. 33 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.#sn The words that Jesus predicts here will never pass away. They are more stable and lasting than creation itself. For this kind of image, see Isa 40:8; 55:10-11.
34 “But be on your guard#tn Grk “watch out for yourselves.”sn Disciples are to watch out. If they are too absorbed into everyday life, they will stop watching and living faithfully. so that your hearts are not weighed down with dissipation and drunkenness and the worries of this life, and that day close down upon you suddenly like a trap.#sn Or like a thief, see Luke 12:39-40. The metaphor of a trap is a vivid one. Most modern English translations traditionally place the words “like a trap” at the end of v. 34, completing the metaphor. In the Greek text (and in the NRSV and REB) the words “like a trap” are placed at the beginning of v. 35. This does not affect the meaning. 35 For#tn There is debate in the textual tradition about the position of γάρ (gar) and whether v. 35 looks back to v. 34 or is independent. The textual evidence does slightly favor placing γάρ after the verb and thus linking it back to v. 34. The other reading looks like Isa 24:17. However, the construction is harsh and the translation prefers for stylistic reasons to start a new English sentence here. it will overtake#tn Or “come upon.” all who live on the face of the whole earth.#sn This judgment involves everyone: all who live on the face of the whole earth. No one will escape this evaluation. 36 But stay alert at all times,#sn The call to be alert at all times is a call to remain faithful in looking for the Lord’s return. praying that you may have strength to escape all these things that must#tn For the translation of μέλλω (mellw) as “must,” see L&N 71.36. happen, and to stand before the Son of Man.”
37 So#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” since vv. 37-38 serve as something of a summary or transition from the discourse preceding to the passion narrative that follows. every day Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. was teaching in the temple courts,#tn Grk “in the temple.” but at night he went and stayed#tn Grk “and spent the night,” but this is redundant because of the previous use of the word “night.” on the Mount of Olives.#tn Grk “at the mountain called ‘of Olives.’” sn See the note on the phrase Mount of Olives in 19:29. 38 And all the people#sn Jesus’ teaching was still quite popular with all the people at this point despite the leaders’ opposition. came to him early in the morning to listen to him in the temple courts.#tc Some mss (those of Ë13) place John 7:53-8:11 here after v. 38, no doubt because it was felt that this was a better setting for the pericope.tn Grk “in the temple.”
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