20
The Authority of Jesus
1 Now one#tn Grk “Now it happened that one.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. day, as Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. was teaching the people in the temple courts#tn Grk “the temple.” and proclaiming#tn Or “preaching.” the gospel, the chief priests and the experts in the law#tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21. with the elders came up#sn The chief priests and the experts in the law with the elders came up. The description is similar to Luke 19:47. The leaders are really watching Jesus at this point. 2 and said to him,#tn Grk “and said, saying to him.” This is redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation. “Tell us: By what authority#tn On this phrase, see BDAG 844 s.v. ποῖος 2.a.γ. are you doing these things?#sn The leadership is looking back to acts like the temple cleansing (19:45-48). How could a Galilean preacher do these things? Or who it is who gave you this authority?” 3 He answered them,#tn Grk “answering, he said to them.” This is redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation. “I will also ask you a question, and you tell me: 4 John’s baptism#sn John, like Jesus, was not a part of the official rabbinic order. So the question “John’s baptism – was it from heaven or from men?” draws an analogy between John the Baptist and Jesus. See Luke 3:1-20; 7:24-27. The phrase John’s baptism refers to the baptism practiced by John. – was it from heaven or from people?”#tn The plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anqrwpwn) is used here (and in v. 6) in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NAB, NRSV, “of human origin”; TEV, “from human beings”; NLT, “merely human”).sn The question is whether John’s ministry was of divine or human origin. 5 So#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ question. they discussed it with one another, saying, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Why did you not believe him?’ 6 But if we say, ‘From people,’ all the people will stone us, because they are convinced that John was a prophet.” 7 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the dilemma Jesus’ opponents faced. they replied that they did not know#sn Very few questions could have so completely revealed the wicked intentions of the religious leaders. Jesus’ question revealed the motivation of the religious leaders and exposed them for what they really were – hypocrites. They indicted themselves when they cited only two options and chose neither of them. The point of Luke 20:1-8 is that no matter what Jesus said in response to their question they were not going to believe it and would in the end use it against him. where it came from. 8 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Jesus said to them, “Neither will I tell you#sn Neither will I tell you. Though Jesus gave no answer, the analogy he used to their own question makes his view clear. His authority came from heaven. by whose authority#tn On this phrase, see BDAG 844 s.v. ποῖος 2.a.γ. This is exactly the same phrase as in v. 2. I do these things.”
The Parable of the Tenants
9 Then#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. The parable Jesus tells here actually addresses the question put to him by the leaders. he began to tell the people this parable: “A man#tc ‡ There are several variants here, most of which involve variations in word order that do not affect translation. However, the presence or absence of τις (ti") after ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), which would be translated “a certain man,” does affect translation. The witnesses that have τις include A W Θ Ë13 1241 2542 al sy. Those that lack it include א B C D L Ψ Ë1 33 Ï it. Externally, the evidence is significantly stronger for the omission. Internally, however, there is some pause. A feature unique to Luke-Acts in the NT is to use the construction ἄνθρωπος τις (cf. 10:30; 12:16; 14:2, 16; 15:11; 16:1; 19:12; Acts 9:33). However, scribes who were familiar with this idiom may have inserted it here. In light of the overwhelming external support for the omission of τις, the shorter reading is preferred. NA27 places τις in brackets, indicating some doubts as to its authenticity. planted a vineyard,#sn The vineyard is a figure for Israel in the OT (Isa 5:1-7). The nation and its leaders are the tenants, so the vineyard here may well refer to the promise that resides within the nation. The imagery is like that in Rom 11:11-24. leased it to tenant farmers,#sn The leasing of land to tenant farmers was common in this period. and went on a journey for a long time. 10 When harvest time came, he sent a slave#sn This slave (along with the next two) represent the prophets God sent to the nation, who were mistreated and rejected. to the tenants so that they would give#tc Instead of the future indicative δώσουσιν (dwsousin, “they will give”), most witnesses (C D W Θ Ψ Ë1 Ï) have the aorist subjunctive δῶσιν (dwsin, “they might give”). The aorist subjunctive is expected following ἵνα ({ina, “so that”), so it is almost surely a motivated reading. Further, early and excellent witnesses, as well as a few others (א A B Ë13 33 579 1241 2542 al), have δώσουσιν. It is thus more likely that the future indicative is authentic. For a discussion of this construction, see BDF §369.2. him his portion of the crop.#tn Grk “from the fruit of the vineyard.” However, the tenants beat his slave#tn Grk “him”; the referent (the slave sent by the owner) has been specified in the translation for clarity.sn The image of the tenants beating up the owner’s slave pictures the nation’s rejection of the prophets and their message. and sent him away empty-handed. 11 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the tenants’ mistreatment of the first slave. he sent another slave. They beat this one too, treated him outrageously, and sent him away empty-handed.#sn The slaves being sent empty-handed suggests that the vineyard was not producing any fruit – and thus neither was the nation of Israel. 12 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the tenants’ mistreatment of the first two slaves. he sent still a third. They even wounded this one, and threw him out. 13 Then#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What should I do? I will send my one dear son;#tn Grk “my beloved son.” See comment at Luke 3:22. sn The owner’s decision to send his one dear son represents God sending Jesus. perhaps they will respect him.’ 14 But when the tenants saw him, they said to one another, ‘This is the heir; let’s kill him so the inheritance will be ours!’ 15 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the tenants’ decision to kill the son. they threw him out of the vineyard and killed#sn Throwing the heir out of the vineyard pictures Jesus’ death outside of Jerusalem. him. What then will the owner of the vineyard do to them? 16 He will come and destroy#sn The statement that the owner will come and destroy those tenants is a promise of judgment; see Luke 13:34-35; 19:41-44. those tenants and give the vineyard to others.”#sn The warning that the owner would give the vineyard to others suggests that the care of the promise and the nation’s hope would be passed to others. This eventually looks to Gentile inclusion; see Eph 2:11-22. When the people#tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people addressed in v. 9) has been specified in the translation for clarity. heard this, they said, “May this never happen!”#sn May this never happen! Jesus’ audience got the point and did not want to consider a story where the nation would suffer judgment. 17 But Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. looked straight at them and said, “Then what is the meaning of that which is written: ‘The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone’?#tn Or “capstone,” “keystone.” Although these meanings are lexically possible, the imagery in Eph 2:20-22 and 1 Cor 3:11 indicates that the term κεφαλὴ γωνίας (kefalh gwnia") refers to a cornerstone, not a capstone.sn The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone. The use of Ps 118:22-23 and the “stone imagery” as a reference to Christ and his suffering and exaltation is common in the NT (see also Matt 21:42; Mark 12:10; Acts 4:11; 1 Pet 2:6-8; cf. also Eph 2:20). The irony in the use of Ps 118:22-23 here is that in the OT, Israel was the one rejected (or perhaps her king) by the Gentiles, but in the NT it is Jesus who is rejected by Israel. 18 Everyone who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces,#tn On this term, see BDAG 972 s.v. συνθλάω. and the one on whom it falls will be crushed.”#tn Grk “on whomever it falls, it will crush him.”sn This proverb basically means that the stone crushes, without regard to whether it falls on someone or someone falls on it. On the stone as a messianic image, see Isa 28:16 and Dan 2:44-45. 19 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. the experts in the law#tn Or “The scribes” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21. and the chief priests wanted to arrest#tn Grk “tried to lay hands on him.” him that very hour, because they realized he had told this parable against them. But#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. they were afraid of the people.
Paying Taxes to Caesar
20 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. they watched him carefully and sent spies who pretended to be sincere.#tn Grk “righteous,” but in this context the point is their false sincerity. They wanted to take advantage of what he might say#tn Grk “so that they might catch him in some word.” so that they could deliver him up to the authority and jurisdiction#tn This word is often translated “authority” in other contexts, but here, in combination with ἀρχή (arch), it refers to the domain or sphere of the governor’s rule (L&N 37.36). of the governor. 21 Thus#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the plans by the spies. they asked him, “Teacher, we know that you speak and teach correctly,#tn Or “precisely”; Grk “rightly.” Jesus teaches exactly, the straight and narrow. and show no partiality, but teach the way of God in accordance with the truth.#sn Teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. Very few comments are as deceitful as this one; they did not really believe this at all. The question was specifically designed to trap Jesus. 22 Is it right#tn Or “lawful,” that is, in accordance with God’s divine law. On the syntax of ἔξεστιν (exestin) with an infinitive and accusative, see BDF §409.3. for us to pay the tribute tax#tn This was a “poll tax.” L&N 57.182 states this was “a payment made by the people of one nation to another, with the implication that this is a symbol of submission and dependence – ‘tribute tax.’” to Caesar#tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor). or not?” 23 But Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. perceived their deceit#tn Or “craftiness.” The term always has negative connotations in the NT (1 Cor 3:19; 2 Cor 4:2; 11:3; Eph 4:14). and said to them, 24 “Show me a denarius.#tn Here the specific name of the coin was retained in the translation, because not all coins in circulation in Palestine at the time carried the image of Caesar. In other places δηνάριον (dhnarion) has been translated simply as “silver coin” with an explanatory note.sn A denarius was a silver coin worth approximately one day’s wage for a laborer. The fact that the leaders had such a coin showed that they already operated in the economic world of Rome. The denarius would have had a picture of Tiberius Caesar, the Roman emperor, on it. Whose image#tn Or “whose likeness.”sn In this passage Jesus points to the image (Grk εἰκών, eikwn) of Caesar on the coin. This same Greek word is used in Gen 1:26 (LXX) to state that humanity is made in the “image” of God. Jesus is making a subtle yet powerful contrast: Caesar’s image is on the denarius, so he can lay claim to money through taxation, but God’s image is on humanity, so he can lay claim to each individual life. and inscription are on it?”#tn Grk “whose likeness and inscription does it have?” They said, “Caesar’s.” 25 So#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ pronouncement results from the opponents’ answer to his question. he said to them, “Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.”#sn Jesus’ answer to give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s was a both/and, not the questioners’ either/or. So he slipped out of their trap. 26 Thus#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ unexpected answer. they were unable in the presence of the people to trap#tn On this term, see BDAG 374 s.v. ἐπιλαμβάνομαι 3. him with his own words.#tn Grk “to trap him in a saying.” And stunned#tn Or “amazed.” by his answer, they fell silent.
Marriage and the Resurrection
27 Now some Sadducees#sn The Sadducees controlled the official political structures of Judaism at this time, being the majority members of the Sanhedrin. They were known as extremely strict on law and order issues (Josephus, J. W. 2.8.2 [2.119], 2.8.14 [2.164-166]; Ant. 13.5.9 [13.171-173], 13.10.6 [13.293-298], 18.1.2 [18.11], 18.1.4 [18.16-17], 20.9.1 [20.199]; Life 2 [10-11]). They also did not believe in resurrection or in angels, an important detail in v. 36. See also Matt 3:7, 16:1-12, 22:23-34; Mark 12:18-27; Acts 4:1, 5:17, 23:6-8. (who contend that there is no resurrection)#sn This remark is best regarded as a parenthetical note by the author. came to him. 28 They asked him,#tn Grk “asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. “Teacher, Moses wrote for us that if a man’s brother dies leaving a wife but no children, that man#tn Grk “his brother”; but this would be redundant in English with the same phrase “his brother” at the end of the verse, so most modern translations render this phrase “the man” (so NIV, NRSV). must marry#tn The use of ἵνα (Jina) with imperatival force is unusual (BDF §470.1). the widow and father children#tn Grk “and raise up seed,” an idiom for procreating children (L&N 23.59). for his brother.#sn A quotation from Deut 25:5. Because the OT quotation does not include “a wife” as the object of the verb, it has been left as normal type. This practice is called levirate marriage (see also Ruth 4:1-12; Mishnah, m. Yevamot; Josephus, Ant. 4.8.23 [4.254-256]). The levirate law is described in Deut 25:5-10. The brother of a man who died without a son had an obligation to marry his brother’s widow. This served several purposes: It provided for the widow in a society where a widow with no children to care for her would be reduced to begging, and it preserved the name of the deceased, who would be regarded as the legal father of the first son produced from that marriage. 29 Now there were seven brothers. The first one married a woman#tn Grk “took a wife” (an idiom for marrying a woman). and died without children. 30 The second#tc Most mss (A W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat) have the words, “took the wife and this one died childless” after “the second.” But this looks like a clarifying addition, assimilating the text to Mark 12:21. In light of the early and diverse witnesses that lack the expression (א B D L 0266 892 1241 co), the shorter reading should be considered authentic. 31 and then the third married her, and in this same way all seven died, leaving no children. 32 Finally the woman died too. 33 In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife will the woman be?#sn The point is a dilemma. In a world arguing a person should have one wife, whose wife will she be in the afterlife? The question was designed to show that (in the opinion of the Sadducees) resurrection leads to a major problem. For all seven had married her.”#tn Grk “For the seven had her as wife.”
34 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ response is a result of their framing of the question. Jesus said to them, “The people of this age#tn Grk “sons of this age” (an idiom, see L&N 11.16). The following clause which refers to being “given in marriage” suggests both men and women are included in this phrase. marry and are given in marriage. 35 But those who are regarded as worthy to share in#tn Grk “to attain to.” that age and in the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage.#sn Life in the age to come is different than life here (they neither marry nor are given in marriage). This means Jesus’ questioners had made a false assumption that life was the same both now and in the age to come. 36 In fact, they can no longer die, because they are equal to angels#sn Angels do not die, nor do they eat according to Jewish tradition (1 En. 15:6; 51:4; Wis 5:5; 2 Bar. 51:10; 1QH 3.21-23). and are sons of God, since they are#tn Grk “sons of God, being.” The participle ὄντες (ontes) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle here. sons#tn Or “people.” The noun υἱός (Juios) followed by the genitive of class or kind (“sons of…”) denotes a person of a class or kind, specified by the following genitive construction. This Semitic idiom is frequent in the NT (L&N 9.4). of the resurrection. 37 But even Moses revealed that the dead are raised#tn Grk “But that the dead are raised even Moses revealed.” in the passage about the bush,#sn See Exod 3:6. Jesus used a common form of rabbinic citation here to refer to the passage in question. where he calls the Lord the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.#sn A quotation from Exod 3:6. 38 Now he is not God of the dead, but of the living,#sn He is not God of the dead but of the living. Jesus’ point was that if God could identify himself as God of the three old patriarchs, then they must still be alive when God spoke to Moses; and so they must be raised. for all live before him.”#tn On this syntax, see BDF §192. The point is that all live “to” God or “before” God. 39 Then#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. some of the experts in the law#tn Or “some of the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21. answered, “Teacher, you have spoken well!”#sn Teacher, you have spoken well! The scribes, being Pharisees, were happy for the defense of resurrection and angels, which they (unlike the Sadducees) believed in. 40 For they did not dare any longer to ask#sn The attempt to show Jesus as ignorant had left the experts silenced. At this point they did not dare any longer to ask him anything. him anything.
The Messiah: David’s Son and Lord
41 But#sn If the religious leaders will not dare to question Jesus any longer, then he will question them. he said to them, “How is it that they say that the Christ#tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:11. is David’s son?#sn It was a common belief in Judaism that Messiah would be David’s son in that he would come from the lineage of David. On this point the Pharisees agreed and were correct. But their understanding was nonetheless incomplete, for Messiah is also David’s Lord. With this statement Jesus was affirming that, as the Messiah, he is both God and man. 42 For David himself says in the book of Psalms,
The Lord said to my#sn The Lord said to my Lord. With David being the speaker, this indicates his respect for his descendant (referred to as my Lord). Jesus was arguing, as the ancient exposition assumed, that the passage is about the Lord’s anointed. The passage looks at an enthronement of this figure and a declaration of honor for him as he takes his place at the side of God. In Jerusalem, the king’s palace was located to the right of the temple to indicate this kind of relationship. Jesus was pressing the language here to get his opponents to reflect on how great Messiah is. lord,
Sit at my right hand,
43 until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”’#sn A quotation from Ps 110:1.
44 If David then calls him ‘Lord,’ how can he be his son?”#tn Grk “David thus calls him ‘Lord.’ So how is he his son?” The conditional nuance, implicit in Greek, has been made explicit in the translation (cf. Matt 22:45).
Jesus Warns the Disciples against Pride
45 As#tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. all the people were listening, Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. said to his disciples, 46 “Beware#tn Or “Be on guard against.” This is a present imperative and indicates that pride is something to constantly be on the watch against. of the experts in the law.#tn Or “of the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21. They#tn Grk “who,” continuing the sentence begun by the prior phrase. like walking around in long robes, and they love elaborate greetings#sn There is later Jewish material in the Talmud that spells out such greetings in detail. See D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1642; H. Windisch, TDNT 1:498. in the marketplaces and the best seats#sn See Luke 14:1-14. in the synagogues#sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15. and the places of honor at banquets. 47 They#tn Grk “who,” continuing the sentence begun in v. 46. devour#sn How they were able to devour widows’ houses is debated. Did they seek too much for contributions, or take too high a commission for their work, or take homes after debts failed to be paid? There is too little said here to be sure. widows’ property,#tn Grk “houses,” “households”; however, the term can have the force of “property” or “possessions” as well (O. Michel, TDNT 5:131; BDAG 695 s.v. οἶκια 1.a). and as a show make long prayers. They will receive a more severe punishment.”
Loading reference in secondary version...
1996 - 2007 by Biblical Studies Press, LLC