10
The Mission of the Seventy-Two
1 After this#tn Grk “And after these things.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated. the Lord appointed seventy-two#tc There is a difficult textual problem here and in v. 17, where the number is either “seventy” (א A C L W Θ Ξ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï and several church fathers and early versions) or “seventy-two” (Ì75 B D 0181 pc lat as well as other versions and fathers). The more difficult reading is “seventy-two,” since scribes would be prone to assimilate this passage to several OT passages that refer to groups of seventy people (Num 11:13-17; Deut 10:22; Judg 8:30; 2 Kgs 10:1 et al.); this reading also has slightly better ms support. “Seventy” could be the preferred reading if scribes drew from the tradition of the number of translators of the LXX, which the Letter of Aristeas puts at seventy-two (TCGNT 127), although this is far less likely. All things considered, “seventy-two” is a much more difficult reading and accounts for the rise of the other. Only Luke notes a second larger mission like the one in 9:1-6. others and sent them on ahead of him two by two into every town#tn Or “city.” and place where he himself was about to go. 2 He#tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. said to them, “The harvest is plentiful, but the workers are few. Therefore ask the Lord of the harvest#sn The phrase Lord of the harvest recognizes God’s sovereignty over the harvest process. to send out#tn Grk “to thrust out.” workers into his harvest. 3 Go! I#tn Grk “Behold I.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). am sending you out like lambs#sn On the imagery of lambs see Isa 40:11, Ezek 34:11-31, and John 10:1-18. surrounded by wolves.#sn This imagery of wolves is found in intertestamental Judaism as well; see Pss. Sol. 8:23. 4 Do not carry#sn On the command Do not carry see Luke 9:3. The travel instructions communicate a note of urgency and stand in contrast to philosophical teachers, who often took a bag. There is no ostentation in this ministry. a money bag,#tn Traditionally, “a purse.” a traveler’s bag,#tn Or possibly “a beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145; BDAG 811 s.v. πήρα). or sandals, and greet no one on the road.#tn Or “no one along the way.” 5 Whenever#tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. you enter a house,#tn Grk “Into whatever house you enter.” This acts as a distributive, meaning every house they enter; this is expressed more naturally in English as “whenever you enter a house.” first say, ‘May peace#sn The statement ‘May peace be on this house!’ is really a benediction, asking for God’s blessing. The requested shalom (peace) is understood as coming from God. be on this house!’ 6 And if a peace-loving person#tn Grk “a son of peace,” a Hebrew idiom for a person of a certain class or kind, as specified by the following genitive construction (in this case, “of peace”). Such constructions are discussed further in L&N 9.4. Here the expression refers to someone who responds positively to the disciples’ message, like “wisdom’s child” in Luke 7:30. is there, your peace will remain on him, but if not, it will return to you.#sn The response to these messengers determines how God’s blessing is bestowed – if they are not welcomed with peace, their blessing will return to them. Jesus shows just how important their mission is by this remark. 7 Stay#tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. in that same house, eating and drinking what they give you,#tn Grk “eating and drinking the things from them” (an idiom for what the people in the house provide the guests). for the worker deserves his pay.#sn On the phrase the worker deserves his pay see 1 Tim 5:18 and 1 Cor 9:14. Do not move around from house to house. 8 Whenever#tn Grk “And whatever town you enter,” but this is more often expressed in English as “whenever you enter a town.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. you enter a town#tn Or “city.” Jesus now speaks of the town as a whole, as he will in vv. 10-12. and the people#tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people who live in the town) has been specified in the translation for clarity. welcome you, eat what is set before you. 9 Heal#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.sn Ministry (heal the sick) is to take place where it is well received (note welcome in the preceding verse). the sick in that town#tn Grk “in it”; the referent (that town) has been specified in the translation for clarity. and say to them, ‘The kingdom of God#sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21. has come upon#tn Or “come near to you,” suggesting the approach (but not arrival) of the kingdom. But the combination of the perfect tense of ἐγγίζω (engizw) with the preposition ἐπί (epi) most likely suggests that the sense is “has come upon” (see BDAG 270 s.v. ἐγγίζω 2; W. R. Hutton, “The Kingdom of God Has Come,” ExpTim 64 [Dec 1952]: 89-91; and D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1000; cf. also NAB “is at hand for you”). These passages argue that a key element of the kingdom is its ability to overcome the power of Satan and those elements in the creation that oppose humanity. Confirmation of this understanding comes in v. 18 and in Luke 11:14-23, especially the parable of vv. 21-23. you!’ 10 But whenever#tn Grk “whatever town you enter,” but this is more often expressed in English as “whenever you enter a town.” you enter a town#tn Or “city.” and the people#tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people who live in the town) has been specified in the translation for clarity. do not welcome#sn More discussion takes place concerning rejection (the people do not welcome you), as these verses lead into the condemnation of certain towns for their rejection of God’s kingdom. you, go into its streets#tn The term πλατεῖα (plateia) refers to the “broad street,” so this refers to the main roads of the town. and say, 11 ‘Even the dust of your town#tn Or “city.” that clings to our feet we wipe off#sn See Luke 9:5, where the verb is different but the meaning is the same. This was a sign of rejection. against you.#tn Here ὑμῖν (Jumin) has been translated as a dative of disadvantage. Nevertheless know this: The kingdom of God has come.’#tn Or “has come near.” As in v. 9 (see above), the combination of ἐγγίζω (engizw) with the preposition ἐπί (epi) is decisive in showing that the sense is “has come” (see BDAG 270 s.v. ἐγγίζω 2, and W. R. Hutton, “The Kingdom of God Has Come,” ExpTim 64 [Dec 1952]: 89-91). 12 I tell you, it will be more bearable on that day for Sodom#sn The allusion to Sodom, the most wicked of OT cities from Gen 19:1-29, shows that to reject the current message is even more serious than the worst sins of the old era and will result in more severe punishment. The noun Sodom is in emphatic position in the Greek text. than for that town!#tn Or “city.”
13 “Woe to you, Chorazin!#sn Chorazin was a town of Galilee that was probably fairly small in contrast to Bethsaida and is otherwise unattested. Bethsaida was declared a polis by the tetrarch Herod Philip, sometime after a.d. 30. Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if#tn This introduces a second class (contrary to fact) condition in the Greek text. the miracles#tn Or “powerful deeds.” done in you had been done in Tyre#map For location see Map1-A2; Map2-G2; Map4-A1; JP3-F3; JP4-F3. and Sidon,#sn Tyre and Sidon are two other notorious OT cities (Isa 23; Jer 25:22; 47:4). The remark is a severe rebuke, in effect: “Even the sinners of the old era would have responded to the proclamation of the kingdom, unlike you!”map For location see Map1-A1; JP3-F3; JP4-F3. they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 14 But it will be more bearable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgment than for you! 15 And you, Capernaum,#sn Capernaum was a town on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region.map For location see Map1-D2; Map2-C3; Map3-B2. will you be exalted to heaven?#tn The interrogative particle introducing this question expects a negative reply. No, you will be thrown down to Hades!#sn In the OT, Hades was known as Sheol. It is the place where the unrighteous will reside (Matt 11:23; Luke 16:23; Rev 20:13-14).
16 “The one who listens#tn Grk “hears you”; but as the context of vv. 8-9 makes clear, it is response that is the point. In contemporary English, “listen to” is one way to express this function (L&N 31.56). to you listens to me,#sn Jesus linked himself to the disciples’ message: Responding to the disciples (listens to you) counts as responding to him. and the one who rejects you rejects me, and the one who rejects me rejects#tn The double mention of rejection in this clause – ἀθετῶν ἀθετεῖ (aqetwn aqetei) in the Greek text – keeps up the emphasis of the section. the one who sent me.”#sn The one who sent me refers to God.
17 Then#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. the seventy-two#tc See the tc note on the number “seventy-two” in Luke 10:1. returned with joy, saying, “Lord, even the demons submit to#tn Or “the demons obey”; see L&N 36.18. us in your name!”#tn The prepositional phrase “in your name” indicates the sphere of authority for the messengers’ work of exorcism. 18 So#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ reply in vv. 18-20 follows from the positive report of the messengers in v. 17. he said to them, “I saw#tn This is an imperfect tense verb. Satan fall#tn In Greek, this is a participle and comes at the end of the verse, making it somewhat emphatic. like lightning#tn This is probably best taken as allusion to Isa 14:12; the phrase in common is ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (ek tou ouranou). These exorcisms in Jesus’ name are a picture of Satan’s greater defeat at Jesus’ hands (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1006-7). from heaven. 19 Look, I have given you authority to tread#tn Or perhaps, “trample on” (which emphasizes the impact of the feet on the snakes). See L&N 15.226. on snakes and scorpions#sn Snakes and scorpions are examples of the hostility in the creation that is defeated by Jesus. The use of battle imagery shows who the kingdom fights against. See Acts 28:3-6. and on the full force of the enemy,#tn Or “I have given you authority to tread on snakes and scorpions, and [authority] over the full force of the enemy.” The second prepositional phrase can be taken either as modifying the infinitive πατεῖν (patein, “to tread”) or the noun ἐξουσίαν (exousian, “power”). The former is to be preferred and has been represented in the translation.sn The enemy is a reference to Satan (mentioned in v. 18). and nothing will#tn This is an emphatic double negative in the Greek text. hurt you. 20 Nevertheless, do not rejoice that#tn Grk “do not rejoice in this, that.” This is awkward in contemporary English and has been simplified to “do not rejoice that.” the spirits submit to you, but rejoice#tn The verb here is a present imperative, so the call is to an attitude of rejoicing. that your names stand written#tn The verb here, a perfect tense, stresses a present reality of that which was a completed action, that is, their names were etched in the heavenly stone, as it were. in heaven.”
21 On that same occasion#tn Grk “In that same hour” (L&N 67.1). Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. rejoiced#sn Jesus rejoiced. The account of the mission in 10:1-24 ends with several remarks about joy. in the Holy Spirit and said, “I praise#tn Or “thank.” you, Father, Lord#sn The title Lord is an important name for God, showing his sovereignty, but it is interesting that it comes next to a reference to the Father, a term indicative of God’s care. The two concepts are often related in the NT; see Eph 1:3-6. of heaven and earth, because#tn Or “that.” you have hidden these things from the wise#sn See 1 Cor 1:26-31. and intelligent, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for this was your gracious will.#tn Grk “for (to do) thus was well pleasing before you,” BDAG 325 s.v. ἔμπροσθεν 1.δ; speaking of something taking place “before” God is a reverential way of avoiding direct connection of the action to him. 22 All things have been given to me by my Father.#sn This verse has been noted for its conceptual similarity to teaching in John’s Gospel (10:15; 17:2). The authority of the Son and the Father are totally intertwined. No one knows who the Son is except the Father, or who the Father is except the Son and anyone to whom the Son decides#tn Or “wishes”; or “intends”; or “plans” (cf. BDAG 182 s.v. βούλομαι 2.b). Here it is the Son who has sovereignty. to reveal him.”
23 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. turned#tn Grk “turning to the disciples, he said.” The participle στραφείς (strafei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. to his#tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215). disciples and said privately, “Blessed#sn This beatitude highlights the great honor bestowed on the disciples to share in this salvation, as v. 20 also noted. See also Luke 2:30. are the eyes that see what you see! 24 For I tell you that many prophets and kings longed to see#sn This is what past prophets and kings had wanted very much to see, yet the fulfillment had come to the disciples. This remark is like 1 Pet 1:10-12 or Heb 1:1-2. what you see but did not see it, and to hear what you hear but did not hear it.”
The Parable of the Good Samaritan
25 Now#tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). an expert in religious law#tn Traditionally, “a lawyer.” This was an expert in the interpretation of the Mosaic law (see also Luke 7:30, where the same term occurs). stood up to test Jesus,#tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. saying, “Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?”#sn The combination of inherit with eternal life asks, in effect, “What must I do to be saved?” 26 He said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you understand it?”#tn Grk “How do you read?” The pronoun “it” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context. 27 The expert#tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law, shortened here to “the expert”) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated. answered, “Love#tn Grk “You will love.” The future indicative is used here with imperatival force (see ExSyn 452 and 569). the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind,#sn A quotation from Deut 6:5. The fourfold reference to different parts of the person says, in effect, that one should love God with all one’s being. and love your neighbor as yourself.”#tn This portion of the reply is a quotation from Lev 19:18. The verb is repeated in the translation for stylistic reasons. 28 Jesus#tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated. said to him, “You have answered correctly;#sn Jesus commends the reply (you have answered correctly). What is assumed here, given the previous context, is that he will respond to Jesus’ message, as to love God is to respond to his Son; see v. 22. do this, and you will live.”
29 But the expert,#tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law, shortened here to “the expert”) has been specified in the translation for clarity. wanting to justify#tn Or “vindicate.”sn The expert in religious law picked up on the remark about the neighbor and sought to limit his responsibility for loving. Some believed this obligation would only be required toward the righteous (Sir 12:1-4). The lawyer was trying to see if that was right and thus confidently establish his righteousness (wanting to justify himself). himself, said to Jesus, “And who is my neighbor?” 30 Jesus replied,#tn Grk “answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “replied.” “A man was going down#sn The journey from Jerusalem to Jericho was 17 mi (27 km), descending some 1800 ft (540 m) in altitude. It was known for its danger because the road ran through areas of desert and caves where the robbers hid. from Jerusalem#map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. to Jericho,#map For location see Map5-B2; Map6-E1; Map7-E1; Map8-E3; Map10-A2; Map11-A1. and fell into the hands of robbers, who stripped him, beat#tn Grk “and beat,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more. him up, and went off, leaving him half dead.#sn That is, in a state between life and death; severely wounded. 31 Now by chance#sn The phrase by chance adds an initial note of hope and fortune to the expectation in the story. a priest was going down that road, but#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context between the priest’s expected action (helping the victim) and what he really did. when he saw the injured man#tn Grk “him”; the referent (the injured man) has been specified in the translation for clarity. he passed by#sn It is not said why the priest passed by and refused to help. It is not relevant to the point of the parable that no help was given in the emergency situation. on the other side.#sn The text suggests that the priest went out of his way (on the other side) not to get too close to the scene. 32 So too a Levite, when he came up to#tn Here κατά (kata) has been translated “up to”; it could also be translated “upon.” the place and saw him,#tn The clause containing the aorist active participle ἐλθών (elqwn) suggests that the Levite came up to the place, took a look, and then moved on. passed by on the other side. 33 But#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context between the previous characters (considered by society to be examples of piety and religious duty) and a hated Samaritan. a Samaritan#tn This is at the beginning of the clause, in emphatic position in the Greek text. who was traveling#tn The participle ὁδεύων (Jodeuwn) has been translated as an adjectival participle (cf. NAB, NASB, TEV); it could also be taken temporally (“while he was traveling,” cf. NRSV, NIV). came to where the injured man#tn Grk “he”; the referent (the injured man) has been specified in the translation for clarity. was, and when he saw him, he felt compassion for him.#tn “Him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. The verb means “to feel compassion for,” and the object of the compassion is understood.sn Here is what made the Samaritan different: He felt compassion for him. In the story, compassion becomes the concrete expression of love. The next verse details explicitly six acts of compassion. 34 He#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Instead, because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. went up to him#tn The words “to him” are not in the Greek text but are implied. The participle προσελθών (proselqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. and bandaged his wounds, pouring oil#sn The ancient practice of pouring oil was designed to comfort and clean the wounds (Isa 1:6). and wine on them. Then#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Because of the length and complexity of this Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. he put him on#tn It is not clear whether the causative nuance of the verb included actual assistance or not (“helped him on” versus “had him get on”; see L&N 15.98), but in light of the severity of the man’s condition as described in the preceding verses, some degree of assistance was almost certainly needed. his own animal,#sn His own animal refers to a riding animal, presumably a donkey, but not specified. brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 35 The#tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. next day he took out two silver coins#tn Grk “two denarii.”sn The two silver coins were denarii. A denarius was a silver coin worth about a day’s pay for a laborer; this would be an amount worth about two days’ pay. and gave them to the innkeeper, saying, ‘Take care of him, and whatever else you spend, I will repay you when I come back this way.’#tn Grk “when I come back”; the words “this way” are part of an English idiom used to translate the phrase. 36 Which of these three do you think became a neighbor#sn Jesus reversed the question the expert in religious law asked in v. 29 to one of becoming a neighbor by loving. “Do not think about who they are, but who you are,” was his reply. to the man who fell into the hands of the robbers?” 37 The expert in religious law#tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated. said, “The one who showed mercy#sn The neighbor did not do what was required (that is why his response is called mercy) but had compassion and out of kindness went the extra step that shows love. See Mic 6:8. Note how the expert in religious law could not bring himself to admit that the example was a Samaritan, someone who would have been seen as a racial half-breed and one not worthy of respect. So Jesus makes a second point that neighbors may appear in surprising places. to him.” So#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the concluding summary. Jesus said to him, “Go and do#tn This recalls the verb of the earlier reply in v. 28. the same.”
Jesus and Martha
38 Now as they went on their way, Jesus#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. entered a certain village where a woman named Martha welcomed him as a guest.#tc Most mss have “into the house” (Ì3vid א C L Ξ 33 579 pc) or “into her house” (א1 A C2 D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 Ï lat) at the end of the sentence. But the English translation masks the multitude of variants: Different forms of “house” (οἰκίαν [oikian], οἶκον [oikon]) and “her” occur (see TCGNT 129). These variations argue against authenticity; they no doubt arose because of the abrupt ending of the sentence (the Greek is more literally translated simply as “Martha received him”), prompting copyists to add the location. The shorter reading is found in Ì45,75 B sa. tn For the meaning “to welcome, to have as a guest” see L&N 34.53. 39 She#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. had a sister named Mary, who sat#tn This reflexive makes it clear that Mary took the initiative in sitting by Jesus. at the Lord’s feet#sn The description of Mary sitting at the Lord’s feet and listening to him makes her sound like a disciple (compare Luke 8:35). and listened to what he said. 40 But Martha was distracted#sn The term distracted means “to be pulled away” by something (L&N 25.238). It is a narrative comment that makes clear who is right in the account. with all the preparations she had to make,#tn Grk “with much serving.” so#tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the following was a result of Martha’s distraction. she came up to him and said, “Lord, don’t you care#tn The negative οὐ (ou) used with the verb expects a positive reply. Martha expected Jesus to respond and rebuke Mary. that my sister has left me to do all the work#tn Grk “has left me to serve alone.” alone? Tell#tn The conjunction οὖν (oun, “then, therefore”) has not been translated here. her to help me.” 41 But the Lord#tc Most mss (A B* C D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï it) read “Jesus” instead of “the Lord” here, but κύριος (kurios, “Lord”) has the support of some weighty papyri, uncials, and other witnesses (Ì3,[45],75 א B2 L 579 892 pc lat sa). answered her,#tn Grk “answering, said to her.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “answered her.” “Martha, Martha,#sn The double vocative Martha, Martha communicates emotion. you are worried and troubled#tn Or “upset.” Here the meanings of μεριμνάω (merimnaw) and θορυβάζομαι (qorubazomai) reinforce each other (L&N 25.234). about many things, 42 but one thing#tc Or, with some mss (Ì3 [א] B C2 L 070vid Ë1 33 [579] pc), “few things are needed – or only one” (as well as other variants). The textual problem here is a difficult one to decide. The shorter reading is normally preferred, but it is not altogether clear how the variants would arise from it. However, the reading followed in the translation has good support (with some internal variations) from a number of witnesses (Ì45,75 A C* W Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï lat sa). is needed. Mary has chosen the best#tn Or “better”; Grk “good.” This is an instance of the positive adjective used in place of the superlative adjective. According to ExSyn 298, this could also be treated as a positive for comparative (“better”). part; it will not be taken away from her.”
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