Paul’s Journey to Jerusalem
1 After#tn Grk “It happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Since the action described by the participle ἀποσπασθέντας (apospasqenta", “tearing ourselves away”) is prior to the departure of the ship, it has been translated as antecedent action (“after”). we#sn This marks the beginning of another “we” section in Acts. These have been traditionally understood to mean that Luke was in the company of Paul for this part of the journey. tore ourselves away#tn BDAG 120 s.v. ἀποσπάω 2.b has “pass. in mid. sense ἀ. ἀπό τινος tear oneself away Ac 21:1”; LSJ 218 gives several illustrations of this verb meaning “to tear or drag away from.” from them, we put out to sea,#tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (ἀ. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.” and sailing a straight course,#tn BDAG 406 s.v. εὐθυδρομέω has “of a ship run a straight course”; L&N 54.3 has “to sail a straight course, sail straight to.” we came to Cos,#sn Cos was an island in the Aegean Sea. on the next day to Rhodes,#sn Rhodes was an island off the southwestern coast of Asia Minor. and from there to Patara.#sn Patara was a city in Lycia on the southwestern coast of Asia Minor. The entire journey was about 185 mi (295 km). 2 We found#tn Grk “and finding.” The participle εὑρόντες (Jeuronte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun in the translation. a ship crossing over to Phoenicia,#sn Phoenicia was the name of an area along the Mediterranean coast north of Palestine. went aboard,#tn Grk “going aboard, we put out to sea.” The participle ἐπιβάντες (epibante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. and put out to sea.#tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (ἀ. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.” 3 After we sighted Cyprus#sn Cyprus is a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor. and left it behind on our port side,#sn The expression left it behind on our port side here means “sailed past to the south of it” since the ship was sailing east. we sailed on to Syria and put in#tn BDAG 531 s.v. κατέρχομαι 2 states, “arrive, put in, nautical t.t. of ships and those who sail in them, who ‘come down’ fr. the ‘high seas’…ἔις τι at someth. a harbor 18:22; 21:3; 27:5.” at Tyre,#sn Tyre was a city and seaport on the coast of Phoenicia. From Patara to Tyre was about 400 mi (640 km). It required a large cargo ship over 100 ft (30 m) long, and was a four to five day voyage.map For location see Map1-A2; Map2-G2; Map4-A1; JP3-F3; JP4-F3. because the ship was to unload its cargo there. 4 After we located#tn BDAG 78 s.v. ἀνευρίσκω has “look/search for (w. finding presupposed) τινά…τοὺς μαθητάς Ac 21:4.” The English verb “locate,” when used in reference to persons, has the implication of both looking for and finding someone. The participle ἀνευρόντες (aneuronte") has been taken temporally. the disciples, we stayed there#tn BDAG 154 s.v. αὐτοῦ states, “deictic adv. designating a position relatively near or far…there…Ac 21:4.” seven days. They repeatedly told#tn The imperfect verb ἔλεγον (elegon) has been taken iteratively. Paul through the Spirit#sn Although they told this to Paul through the Spirit, it appears Paul had a choice here (see v. 14). Therefore this amounted to a warning: There was risk in going to Jerusalem, so he was urged not to go. not to set foot#tn BDAG 367 s.v. ἐπιβαίνω places Ac 21:4 under 1, “go up/upon, mount, board…πλοίῳ…Ac 27:2…Abs. go on board, embark…21:1 D, 2. – So perh. also ἐ. εἰς ᾿Ιεροσόλυμα embark for Jerusalem (i.e. to the seaport of Caesarea) vs. 4.” BDAG notes, however, “But this pass. may also belong to 2. to move to an area and be there, set foot in.” Because the message from the disciples to Paul through the Holy Spirit has the character of a warning, the latter meaning has been adopted for this translation. in Jerusalem.#map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. 5 When#tn Grk “It happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. our time was over,#tn Grk “When our days were over.” L&N 67.71 has “ὅτε δὲ ἐγένετο ἡμᾶς ἐξαρτίσαι τὰς ἡμέρας ‘when we brought that time to an end’ or ‘when our time with them was over’ Ac 21:5.” we left and went on our way. All of them, with their wives and children, accompanied#tn Grk “accompanying.” Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation and the participle προπεμπόντων (propempontwn) translated as a finite verb. us outside of the city. After#tn Grk “city, and after.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun. kneeling down on the beach and praying,#sn On praying in Acts, see 1:14, 24; 2:47; 4:23; 6:6; 10:2; 12:5, 12; 13:3; 16:25. 6 we said farewell#tn BDAG 98 s.v. ἀπασπάζομαι has “take leave of, say farewell to τινά someone…ἀπησπασάμεθα ἀλλήλους we said farewell to one another Ac 21:6.” to one another.#sn These words are part of v. 5 in the standard critical Greek text. Then#tn Grk “and.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation, and καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the logical sequence. we went aboard the ship, and they returned to their own homes.#tn Grk “to their own”; the word “homes” is implied. 7 We continued the voyage from Tyre#sn Tyre was a city and seaport on the coast of Phoenicia. and arrived at Ptolemais,#sn Ptolemais was a seaport on the coast of Palestine about 30 mi (48 km) south of Tyre. and when we had greeted the brothers, we stayed with them for one day. 8 On the next day we left#tn Grk “On the next day leaving, we came.” The participle ἐξελθόντες (exelqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. and came to Caesarea,#sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1. This was another 40 mi (65 km).map For location see Map2-C1; Map4-B3; Map5-F2; Map7-A1; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. and entered#tn Grk “and entering…we stayed.” The participle εἰσελθόντες (eiselqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. the house of Philip the evangelist, who was one of the seven,#sn Philip was one of the seven deacons appointed in the Jerusalem church (Acts 6:1-7). and stayed with him. 9 (He had four unmarried#tn Grk “virgin.” While the term παρθένος (parqeno") can refer to a woman who has never had sexual relations, the emphasis in this context seems to be on the fact that Philip’s daughters were not married (L&N 9.39). daughters who prophesied.)#sn This is best taken as a parenthetical note by the author. Luke again noted women who were gifted in the early church (see Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.31; 3.39).
10 While we remained there for a number of days,#tn BDAG 848 s.v. πολύς 1.b.α has “ἐπὶ ἡμέρας πλείους for a (large) number of days, for many days…Ac 13:31. – 21:10…24:17; 25:14; 27:20.” a prophet named Agabus#sn Agabus also appeared in Acts 11:28. He was from Jerusalem, so the two churches were still in contact with one another. came down from Judea. 11 He came#tn Grk “And coming.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here. The participle ἐλθών (elqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. to us, took#tn Grk “and taking.” This καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more. The participle ἄρας (aras) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Paul’s belt,#sn The belt was a band or sash used to keep money as well as to gird up the tunic (BDAG 431 s.v. ζώνη). tied#tn The participle δήσας (dhsas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. his own hands and feet with it,#tn The words “with it” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. and said, “The Holy Spirit says this: ‘This is the way the Jews in Jerusalem will tie up the man whose belt this is, and will hand him over#tn Grk “and will deliver him over into the hands of” (a Semitic idiom).sn The Jews…will tie up…and will hand him over. As later events will show, the Jews in Jerusalem did not personally tie Paul up and hand him over to the Gentiles, but their reaction to him was the cause of his arrest (Acts 21:27-36). to the Gentiles.’” 12 When we heard this, both we and the local people#tn Or “the people there.” begged him not to go up to Jerusalem. 13 Then Paul replied, “What are you doing, weeping and breaking#tn The term translated “breaking” as used by Josephus (Ant. 10.10.4 [10.207]) means to break something into pieces, but in its only NT use (it is a hapax legomenon) it is used figuratively (BDAG 972 s.v. συνθρύπτω). my heart? For I am ready not only to be tied up,#tn L&N 18.13 has “to tie objects together – ‘to tie, to tie together, to tie up.’” The verb δέω (dew) is sometimes figurative for imprisonment (L&N 37.114), but it is preferable to translate it literally here in light of v. 11 where Agabus tied himself up with Paul’s belt. but even to die in Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus.” 14 Because he could not be persuaded,#tn The participle πειθομένου (peiqomenou) in this genitive absolute construction has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. we said no more except,#tn Grk “we became silent, saying.” “The Lord’s will be done.”#sn “The Lord’s will be done.” Since no one knew exactly what would happen, the matter was left in the Lord’s hands.
15 After these days we got ready#tn Or “we made preparations.” and started up#tn Grk “were going up”; the imperfect verb ἀνεβαίνομεν (anebainomen) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect. sn In colloquial speech Jerusalem was always said to be “up” from any other location in Palestine. The group probably covered the 65 mi (105 km) in two days using horses. Their arrival in Jerusalem marked the end of Paul’s third missionary journey. to Jerusalem. 16 Some of the disciples from Caesarea#sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1.map For location see Map2-C1; Map4-B3; Map5-F2; Map7-A1; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. came along with us too, and brought us to the house#tn Grk “to Mnason…”; the words “the house of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the verb ξενισθῶμεν (xenisqwmen). of Mnason of Cyprus, a disciple from the earliest times,#tn Or perhaps, “Mnason of Cyprus, one of the original disciples.” BDAG 137 s.v. ἀρχαῖος 1 has “ἀ. μαθητής a disciple of long standing (perh. original disc.) Ac 21:16.” with whom we were to stay. 17 When we arrived in Jerusalem, the brothers welcomed us gladly.#tn Or “warmly” (see BDAG 144 s.v. ἀσμένως). 18 The next day Paul went in with us to see James, and all the elders were there.#tn BDAG 760 s.v. παραγίνομαι 1 has this use under the broad category of meaning “draw near, come, arrive, be present.”sn All the elders were there. This meeting shows how the Jerusalem church still regarded Paul and his mission with favor, but also with some concerns because of the rumors circulating about his actions. 19 When Paul#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity. had greeted them, he began to explain#tn Or “to report,” “to describe.” The imperfect verb ἐξηγεῖτο (exhgeito) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect. in detail#tn BDAG 293 s.v. εἷς 5.e has “καθ᾿ ἕν one after the other (hence τὸ καθ᾿ ἕν ‘a detailed list’: PLille 11, 8 [III bc]; PTebt. 47, 34; 332, 16) J 21:25. Also καθ᾿ ἕν ἕκαστον…Ac 21:19.” what God#sn Note how Paul credited God with the success of his ministry. had done among the Gentiles through his ministry. 20 When they heard this, they praised#tn Or “glorified.” God. Then they said to him, “You see, brother, how many thousands of Jews#tn Grk “how many thousands there are among the Jews.”sn How many thousands of Jews. See Acts 2-5 for the accounts of their conversion, esp. 2:41 and 4:4. Estimates of the total number of Jews living in Jerusalem at the time range from 20,000 to 50,000. there are who have believed, and they are all ardent observers#tn Or “are all zealous for the law.” BDAG 427 s.v. ζηλωτής 1.a.β has “of thing…τοῦ νόμου an ardent observer of the law Ac 21:20.” of the law.#sn That is, the law of Moses. These Jewish Christians had remained close to their Jewish practices after becoming believers (1 Cor 7:18-19; Acts 16:3). 21 They have been informed about you – that you teach all the Jews now living#tn BDAG 511 s.v. κατά B.1.a has “τοὺς κ. τὰ ἔθνη ᾿Ιουδαίους the Judeans (dispersed) throughout the nations 21:21.” The Jews in view are not those in Palestine, but those who are scattered throughout the Gentile world. among the Gentiles to abandon#tn Or “to forsake,” “to rebel against.” BDAG 120 s.v. ἀποστασία has “ἀποστασίαν διδάσκεις ἀπὸ Μωϋσέως you teach (Judeans) to abandon Moses Ac 21:21.”sn The charge that Paul was teaching Jews in the Diaspora to abandon Moses was different from the issue faced in Acts 15, where the question was whether Gentiles needed to become like Jews first in order to become Christians. The issue also appears in Acts 24:5-6, 13-21; 25:8. Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children#sn That is, not to circumcise their male children. Biblical references to circumcision always refer to male circumcision. or live#tn Grk “or walk.” according to our customs. 22 What then should we do? They will no doubt#tn L&N 71.16 has “pertaining to being in every respect certain – ‘certainly, really, doubtless, no doubt.’…‘they will no doubt hear that you have come’ Ac 21:22.” hear that you have come. 23 So do what#tn Grk “do this that.” we tell you: We have four men#tn Grk “There are four men here.” who have taken#tn L&N 33.469 has “‘there are four men here who have taken a vow’ or ‘we have four men who…’ Ac 21:23.” a vow;#tn On the term for “vow,” see BDAG 416 s.v. εὐχή 2. 24 take them and purify#sn That is, undergo ritual cleansing. Paul’s cleansing would be necessary because of his travels in “unclean” Gentile territory. This act would represent a conciliatory gesture. Paul would have supported a “law-free” mission to the Gentiles as an option, but this gesture would represent an attempt to be sensitive to the Jews (1 Cor 9:15-22). yourself along with them and pay their expenses,#tn L&N 57.146 has “δαπάνησον ἐπ᾿ αὐτοῖς ‘pay their expenses’ Ac 21:24.” so that they may have their heads shaved.#tn The future middle indicative has causative force here. BDAG 686 s.v. ξυράω has “mid. have oneself shaved…τὴν κεφαλήν have one’s head shaved…Ac 21:24.”sn Having their heads shaved probably involved ending a voluntary Nazirite vow (Num 6:14-15). Then#tn Grk “and.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation, and καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the logical sequence. everyone will know there is nothing in what they have been told#tn The verb here describes a report or some type of information (BDAG 534 s.v. κατηχέω 1). about you, but that you yourself live in conformity with#tn Grk “adhere to the keeping of the law.” L&N 41.12 has “στοιχέω: to live in conformity with some presumed standard or set of customs – ‘to live, to behave in accordance with.’” the law.#sn The law refers to the law of Moses. 25 But regarding the Gentiles who have believed, we have written a letter, having decided#tn L&N 13.154 has “‘having decided that they must keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from an animal that has been strangled, and from sexual immorality’ Ac 21:25.”sn Having decided refers here to the decision of the Jerusalem council (Acts 15:6-21). Mention of this previous decision reminds the reader that the issue here is somewhat different: It is not whether Gentiles must first become Jews before they can become Christians (as in Acts 15), but whether Jews who become Christians should retain their Jewish practices. Sensitivity to this issue would suggest that Jewish Christians and Gentile Christians might engage in different practices. that they should avoid#tn This is a different Greek word than the one used in Acts 15:20, 29. BDAG 1068 s.v. φυλάσσω 3 has “to be on one’s guard against, look out for, avoid…w. acc. of pers. or thing avoided…Ac 21:25.” The Greek word used in Acts 15:20, 29 is ἀπέχω (apecw). The difference in meaning, although slight, has been maintained in the translation. meat that has been sacrificed to idols#tn There is no specific semantic component in the Greek word εἰδωλόθυτος that means “meat” (see BDAG 280 s.v. εἰδωλόθυτος; L&N 5.15). The stem –θυτος means “sacrifice” (referring to an animal sacrificially killed) and thereby implies meat. and blood and what has been strangled#sn What has been strangled. That is, to refrain from eating animals that had been killed without having the blood drained from them. According to the Mosaic law (Lev 17:13-14) Jews were forbidden to eat flesh with the blood still in it (note the preceding provision in this verse, and blood). and sexual immorality.” 26 Then Paul took the men the next day,#tn BDAG 422 s.v. ἔχω 11.b.β has “temporal, to be next, immediately following…τῇ ἐχομένῃ…on the next day Lk 13:33…Ac 20:15; w. ἡμέρᾳ added…21:26.” and after he had purified himself#tn That is, after he had undergone ritual cleansing. The aorist passive participle ἁγνισθείς (Jagnisqei") has been taken temporally of antecedent action. along with them, he went to the temple and gave notice#tn Grk “entered the temple, giving notice.” The participle διαγγέλλων (diangellwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. of the completion of the days of purification,#sn The days of purification refers to the days of ritual cleansing. when#tn Grk “until” (BDAG 423 s.v. ἕως 1.b.β.א), but since in English it is somewhat awkward to say “the completion of the days of purification, until the sacrifice would be offered,” the temporal clause was translated “when the sacrifice would be offered.” The point is that the sacrifice would be offered when the days were completed. Paul honored the request of the Jewish Christian leadership completely. As the following verse makes clear, the vow was made for seven days. the sacrifice would be offered for each#tn Grk “for each one.” of them. 27 When the seven days were almost over,#tn BDAG 975 s.v. συντελέω 4 has “to come to an end of a duration, come to an end, be over…Ac 21:27.” the Jews from the province of Asia#tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.sn Note how there is a sense of Paul being pursued from a distance. These Jews may well have been from Ephesus, since they recognized Trophimus the Ephesian (v. 29). who had seen him in the temple area#tn Grk “in the temple.” See the note on the word “temple” in v. 28. stirred up the whole crowd#tn Or “threw the whole crowd into consternation.” L&N 25.221 has “συνέχεον πάντα τὸν ὄχλον ‘they threw the whole crowd into consternation’ Ac 21:27. It is also possible to render the expression in Ac 21:27 as ‘they stirred up the whole crowd.’” and seized#tn Grk “and laid hands on.” him, 28 shouting, “Men of Israel,#tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage since “the whole crowd” is mentioned in v. 27, although it can also be argued that these remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there. help! This is the man who teaches everyone everywhere against our people, our law,#sn The law refers to the law of Moses. and this sanctuary!#tn Grk “this place.”sn This sanctuary refers to the temple. The charges were not new, but were similar to those made against Stephen (Acts 6:14) and Jesus (Luke 23:2). Furthermore#tn BDAG 400 s.v. ἔτι 2.b has “ἔ. δὲ καί furthermore…al. ἔ. τε καί…Lk 14:26; Ac 21:28.” This is a continuation of the same sentence in Greek, but due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, a new sentence was begun here in the translation. he has brought Greeks into the inner courts of the temple#tn Grk “into the temple.” The specific reference is to the Court of the Sons of Israel (see the note following the term “unclean” at the end of this verse). To avoid giving the modern reader the impression that they entered the temple building itself, the phrase “the inner courts of the temple” has been used in the translation. and made this holy place ritually unclean!”#tn Or “and has defiled this holy place.”sn Has brought Greeks…unclean. Note how the issue is both religious and ethnic, showing a different attitude by the Jews. A Gentile was not permitted to enter the inner temple precincts (contrast Eph 2:11-22). According to Josephus (Ant. 15.11.5 [15.417]; J. W. 5.5.2 [5.193], cf. 5.5.6 [5.227]), the inner temple courts (the Court of the Women, the Court of the Sons of Israel, and the Court of the Priests) were raised slightly above the level of the Court of the Gentiles and were surrounded by a wall about 5 ft (1.5 m) high. Notices in both Greek and Latin (two of which have been discovered) warned that any Gentiles who ventured into the inner courts would be responsible for their own deaths. See also Philo, Embassy 31 (212). In m. Middot 2:3 this wall was called “soreq” and according to m. Sanhedrin 9:6 the stranger who trespassed beyond the soreq would die by the hand of God. 29 (For they had seen Trophimus the Ephesian in the city with him previously, and#tn Grk “whom.” they assumed Paul had brought him into the inner temple courts.)#tn On the phrase “inner temple courts” see the note on the word “temple” in v. 28.sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. The note explains the cause of the charge and also notes that it was false. 30 The whole city was stirred up,#tn On this term see BDAG 545 s.v. κινέω 2.b. and the people rushed together.#tn Or “the people formed a mob.” BDAG 967 s.v. συνδρομή has “formation of a mob by pers. running together, running together…ἐγένετο σ. τοῦ λαοῦ the people rushed together Ac 21:30.” They seized#tn Grk “and seizing.” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενοι (epilabomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation, and καί (kai) has not been translated here. Paul and dragged him out of the temple courts,#tn Grk “out of the temple.” See the note on the word “temple” in v. 28. and immediately the doors were shut. 31 While they were trying#tn Grk “seeking.” to kill him, a report#tn Or “information” (originally concerning a crime; BDAG 1050 s.v. φάσις). was sent up#tn Grk “went up”; this verb is used because the report went up to the Antonia Fortress where the Roman garrison was stationed. to the commanding officer#tn Grk “the chiliarch” (an officer in command of a thousand soldiers). In Greek the term χιλίαρχος (ciliarco") literally described the “commander of a thousand,” but it was used as the standard translation for the Latin tribunus militum or tribunus militare, the military tribune who commanded a cohort of 600 men. of the cohort#sn A cohort was a Roman military unit of about 600 soldiers, one-tenth of a legion. that all Jerusalem was in confusion.#tn BDAG 953 s.v. συγχέω has “Pass. w. act.force be in confusion…ὅλη συγχύννεται ᾿Ιερουσαλήμ 21:31.” 32 He#tn Grk “who.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, the relative pronoun (“who”) was translated as a pronoun (“he”) and a new sentence was begun here in the translation. immediately took#tn Grk “taking…ran down.” The participle κατέδραμεν (katedramen) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. soldiers and centurions#sn See the note on the word centurion in 10:1. and ran down to the crowd.#tn Grk “to them”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity. When they saw#tn Grk “seeing.” The participle ἰδόντες (idonte") has been taken temporally. the commanding officer#tn Grk “the chiliarch” (an officer in command of a thousand soldiers). See note on the term “commanding officer” in v. 31. and the soldiers, they stopped beating#sn The mob stopped beating Paul because they feared the Romans would arrest them for disturbing the peace and for mob violence. They would let the Roman officials take care of the matter from this point on. Paul. 33 Then the commanding officer#tn Grk “the chiliarch” (an officer in command of a thousand soldiers). See note on the term “commanding officer” in v. 31. came up and arrested#tn Grk “seized.” him and ordered him to be tied up with two chains;#tn The two chains would be something like handcuffs (BDAG 48 s.v. ἅλυσις and compare Acts 28:20). he#tn Grk “and he.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation, and καί (kai) has been replaced with a semicolon. “Then” has been supplied after “he” to clarify the logical sequence. then asked who he was and what#tn Grk “and what it is”; this has been simplified to “what.” he had done. 34 But some in the crowd shouted one thing, and others something else,#tn L&N 33.77 has “ἄλλοι δὲ ἄλλο τι ἐπεφώνουν ἐν τῷ ὄχλῳ ‘some in the crowd shouted one thing; others, something else’ Ac 21:34.” and when the commanding officer#tn Grk “he”; the referent (the commanding officer) has been specified in the translation for clarity. was unable#tn This genitive absolute construction has been translated temporally; it could also be taken causally: “and since the commanding officer was unable to find out the truth.” to find out the truth#tn Or “find out what had happened”; Grk “the certainty” (BDAG 147 s.v. ἀσφαλής 2). because of the disturbance,#tn Or “clamor,” “uproar” (BDAG 458 s.v. θόρυβος). he ordered Paul#tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity. to be brought into the barracks.#tn Or “the headquarters.” BDAG 775 s.v. παρεμβολή 2 has “barracks/headquarters of the Roman troops in Jerusalem Ac 21:34, 37; 22:24; 23:10, 16, 32.” 35 When he came to the steps, Paul#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity. had to be carried#sn Paul had to be carried. Note how the arrest really ended up protecting Paul. The crowd is portrayed as irrational at this point. by the soldiers because of the violence#tn This refers to mob violence (BDAG 175 s.v. βία b). of the mob, 36 for a crowd of people#tn Grk “the multitude of people.” While πλῆθος (plhqo") is articular, it has been translated “a crowd” since it was probably a subset of the larger mob that gathered in v. 30. followed them,#tn The word “them” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader. screaming, “Away with him!” 37 As Paul was about to be brought into the barracks,#tn Or “the headquarters.” BDAG 775 s.v. παρεμβολή 2 has “barracks/headquarters of the Roman troops in Jerusalem Ac 21:34, 37; 22:24; 23:10, 16, 32.” he said#tn Grk “says” (a historical present). to the commanding officer,#tn Grk “the chiliarch” (an officer in command of a thousand soldiers) See note on the term “commanding officer” in v. 31. “May I say#tn Grk “Is it permitted for me to say” (an idiom). something to you?” The officer#tn Grk “He”; the referent (the officer) has been specified in the translation for clarity. replied,#tn Grk “said.” “Do you know Greek?#sn “Do you know Greek?” Paul as an educated rabbi was bilingual. Paul’s request in Greek allowed the officer to recognize that Paul was not the violent insurrectionist he thought he had arrested (see following verse). The confusion of identities reveals the degree of confusion dominating these events. 38 Then you’re not that Egyptian who started a rebellion#tn L&N 39.41 has “οὐκ ἄρα σὺ εἶ ὁ Αἰγύπτιος ὁ πρὸ τούτων τῶν ἡμερῶν ἀναστατώσας ‘then you are not that Egyptian who some time ago started a rebellion’ Ac 21:38.” and led the four thousand men of the ‘Assassins’#tn Grk “of the Sicarii.”sn The term ‘Assassins’ is found several times in the writings of Josephus (J. W. 2.13.3 [2.254-257]; Ant. 20.8.10 [20.186]). It was the name of the most fanatical group among the Jewish nationalists, very hostile to Rome, who did not hesitate to assassinate their political opponents. They were named Sicarii in Latin after their weapon of choice, the short dagger or sicarius which could be easily hidden under one’s clothing. In effect, the officer who arrested Paul had thought he was dealing with a terrorist. into the wilderness#tn Or “desert.” some time ago?”#tn Grk “before these days.” 39 Paul answered,#tn Grk “said.” “I am a Jew#tn Grk “a Jewish man.” from Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of an important city.#tn Grk “of a not insignificant city.” The double negative, common in Greek, is awkward in English and has been replaced by a corresponding positive expression (BDAG 142 s.v. ἄσημος 1). Please#tn Grk “I beg you.” allow me to speak to the people.” 40 When the commanding officer#tn The referent (the commanding officer) has been supplied here in the translation for clarity. had given him permission,#tn Grk “Giving him permission.” The participle ἐπιτρέψαντος (epitreyanto") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Paul stood#tn Grk “standing.” The participle ἑστώς (Jestws) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. on the steps and gestured#tn Or “motioned.” to the people with his hand. When they had become silent,#tn γενομένης (genomenhs) has been taken temporally. BDAG 922 s.v. σιγή has “πολλῆς σιγῆς γενομένης when a great silence had fallen = when they had become silent Ac 21:40.” he addressed#tn Or “spoke out to.” L&N 33.27 has “to address an audience, with possible emphasis upon loudness – ‘to address, to speak out to.’ πολλῆς δέ σιγῆς γενομένης προσεφώνησεν τῇ ᾿Εβραίδι διαλέκτῳ ‘when they were quiet, he addressed them in Hebrew’ Ac 21:40.” them in Aramaic,#tn Grk “in the Hebrew dialect, saying.” This refers to the Aramaic spoken in Palestine in the 1st century (BDAG 270 s.v. ῾Εβραΐς). The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
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