David Is Anointed King Over Israel
1 All the tribes of Israel came to David at Hebron saying, “Look, we are your very flesh and blood!#tn Heb “look we are your bone and your flesh.” 2 In the past, when Saul was our king, you were the real leader in Israel.#tn Heb “you were the one leading out and the one leading in Israel.” The Lord said to you, ‘You will shepherd my people Israel; you will rule over Israel.’”
3 When all the leaders#tn Heb “elders.” of Israel came to the king at Hebron, King David made an agreement with them#tn Heb “and the king, David, cut for them a covenant.” in Hebron before the Lord. They designated#tn Heb “anointed.” David as king over Israel. 4 David was thirty years old when he began to reign and he reigned for forty years. 5 In Hebron he reigned over Judah for seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem#map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. he reigned for thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah.
David Occupies Jerusalem
6 Then the king and his men advanced to Jerusalem#map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. against the Jebusites who lived in the land. The Jebusites#tn The Hebrew text has “he” rather than “the Jebusites.” The referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. In the Syriac Peshitta and some mss of the Targum the verb is plural rather than singular. said to David, “You cannot invade this place! Even the blind and the lame will turn you back, saying, ‘David cannot invade this place!’”
7 But David captured the fortress of Zion (that is, the city of David). 8 David said on that day, “Whoever attacks the Jebusites must approach the ‘lame’ and the ‘blind’ who are David’s enemies#tc There is some confusion among the witnesses concerning this word. The Kethib is the Qal perfect 3cp שָׂנְאוּ (sanÿ’u, “they hated”), referring to the Jebusites’ attitude toward David. The Qere is the Qal passive participle construct plural שְׂנֻאֵי (sÿnu’e, “hated”), referring to David’s attitude toward the Jebusites. 4QSama has the Qal perfect 3rd person feminine singular שָׂנְאָה (sanÿ’ah, “hated”), the subject of which would be “the soul of David.” The difference is minor and the translation adopted above works for either the Kethib or the Qere. by going through the water tunnel.”#tn The meaning of the Hebrew term has been debated. For a survey of various views, see P. K. McCarter, II Samuel (AB), 139-40. sn If a water tunnel is in view here, it is probably the so-called Warren’s Shaft that extends up from Hezekiah’s tunnel. It would have provided a means for surprise attack against the occupants of the city of David. The LXX seems not to understand the reference here, translating “by the water shaft” as “with a small knife.” For this reason it is said, “The blind and the lame cannot enter the palace.”#tn Heb “the house.” TEV takes this as a reference to the temple (“the Lord’s house”).
9 So David lived in the fortress and called it the City of David. David built all around it, from the terrace inwards. 10 David’s power grew steadily, for the Lord God#tc 4QSama and the LXX lack the word “God,” probably due to harmonization with the more common biblical phrase “the Lord of hosts.” who commands armies#tn Traditionally, “the Lord God of hosts” (KJV, NASB); NIV, NLT “the Lord God Almighty”; CEV “the Lord (+ God NCV) All-Powerful.” was with him.#tn The translation assumes that the disjunctive clause is circumstantial-causal, giving the reason for David’s success.
11 King Hiram of Tyre#map For location see Map1-A2; Map2-G2; Map4-A1; JP3-F3; JP4-F3. sent messengers to David, along with cedar logs, carpenters, and stonemasons. They built a palace#tn Heb “a house.” for David. 12 David realized that the Lord had established him as king over Israel and that he had elevated his kingdom for the sake of his people Israel. 13 David married more concubines and wives from Jerusalem after he arrived from Hebron. Even more sons and daughters were born to David. 14 These are the names of children born to him in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, 15 Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, 16 Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet.
Conflict with the Philistines
17 When the Philistines heard that David had been designated#tn Heb “anointed.” king over Israel, they all#tn Heb “all the Philistines.” went up to search for David. When David heard about it, he went down to the fortress. 18 Now the Philistines had arrived and spread out in the valley of Rephaim. 19 So David asked the Lord, “Should I march up against the Philistines? Will you hand them over to me?” The Lord said to David, “March up, for I will indeed#tn The infinitive absolute lends emphasis to the following verb. hand the Philistines over to you.”
20 So David marched against Baal Perazim and defeated them there. Then he said, “The Lord has burst out against my enemies like water bursts out.” So he called the name of that place Baal Perazim.#tn The name means “Lord of the outbursts.” 21 The Philistines#tn Heb “they”; the referent (the Philistines) has been specified in the translation for clarity. abandoned their idols#tc For “idols” the LXX and Vulgate have “gods.” there, and David and his men picked them up.
22 The Philistines again came up and spread out in the valley of Rephaim. 23 So David asked the Lord what he should do.#tn The words “what to do” are not in the Hebrew text. This time#tn The words “this time” are not in the Hebrew text. the Lord#tn Heb “he”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity. said to him, “Don’t march straight up. Instead, circle around behind them and come against them opposite the trees.#tn Some translate as “balsam trees” (cf. NASB, NIV, NRSV, NJB, NLT); cf. KJV, NKJV, ASV “mulberry trees”; NAB “mastic trees”; NEB, REB “aspens.” The exact identification of the type of tree or plant is uncertain. 24 When you hear the sound of marching in the tops of the trees, act decisively. For at that moment the Lord is going before you to strike down the army#tn Heb “camp” (so NAB). of the Philistines.” 25 David did just as the Lord commanded him, and he struck down the Philistines from Gibeon all the way to Gezer.#tn Heb “from Gibeon until you enter Gezer.”