1 Adam, Seth, Enosh, 2 Kenan, Mahalalel, Jered, 3 Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, 4 Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.#tc The LXX reads “Noah; the sons of Noah [were] Shem, Ham, and Japheth.” Several English translations (e.g., NIV, NLT) follow the LXX.sn Shem, Ham, and Japheth were Noah’s three sons (Gen 6:10).
5 The sons of Japheth:
Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.
6 The sons of Gomer:
Ashkenaz, Riphath,#tc Many medieval Hebrew mss, along with the LXX and Vulgate, read “Riphath” (see Gen 10:3). This is followed by several English translations (e.g., NAB, NIV, NLT), while others (e.g., ASV, NASB, NRSV) follow the MT reading (“Diphath”). and Togarmah.
7 The sons#tn Or in this case, “descendants.” of Javan:
Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittites, and the Rodanites.#tc The Kethiv has “Rodanim,” which probably refers to the island of Rhodes. The Qere has “Dodanim,” which refers to one of the most ancient and revered locations in ancient Greece. The MT and most medieval Hebrew mss of the parallel list in Gen 10:4 read “Dodanim,” but a few have “Rodanim.”tn Heb “Kittim and Rodanim.”
8 The sons of Ham:
Cush, Mizraim,#tn That is, “Egypt.” Put, and Canaan.
9 The sons of Cush:
Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raamah, and Sabteca.
The sons of Raamah:
Sheba and Dedan.
10 Cush was the father of Nimrod, who established himself as a mighty warrior on earth.#tn Heb “he began to be a mighty warrior in the earth.”
11 Mizraim was the father of the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, 12 Pathrusites, Casluhites (from whom the Philistines descended#tn Heb “came forth.”), and the Caphtorites.
13 Canaan was the father of Sidon – his firstborn – and Heth, 14 as well as the Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, 15 Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, 16 Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites.
17 The sons of Shem:
Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram.
The sons of Aram:#tc The words “the sons of Aram” do not appear in the Hebrew text. Apparently the phrase וּבְנֵי אֲרָם (uvÿney ’aram) has accidentally dropped out of the text by homoioteleuton (note the presence of אֲרָם just before this). The phrase is included in Gen 10:23.
Uz, Hul, Gether, and Meshech.#tc The MT of the parallel geneaology in Gen 10:23 reads “Mash,” but the LXX there reads “Meshech” in agreement with 1 Chr 1:17.
18 Arphaxad was the father of Shelah, and Shelah was the father of Eber. 19 Two sons were born to Eber: the first was named Peleg, for during his lifetime the earth was divided;#sn Perhaps this refers to the scattering of the people at Babel (Gen 11:1-9). his brother’s name was Joktan.
20 Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 21 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 22 Ebal,#tc Some medieval Hebrew mss and the Syriac read “Obal” (see Gen 10:28). Abimael, Sheba, 23 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan.
24 Shem, Arphaxad, Shelah,#tc Some LXX mss read “Arphaxad, Cainan, Shelah” (see also the notes on Gen 10:24; 11:12-13). 25 Eber, Peleg, Reu, 26 Serug, Nahor, Terah, 27 Abram (that is, Abraham).
28 The sons of Abraham:
Isaac and Ishmael.
29 These were their descendants:
Ishmael’s firstborn son was Nebaioth; the others were#tn The words “the others were” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, 30 Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, 31 Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These were the sons of Ishmael.
32 The sons to whom Keturah, Abraham’s concubine,#sn A concubine was a slave woman in ancient Near Eastern societies who was the legal property of her master, but who could have legitimate sexual relations with her master. A concubine’s status was more elevated than a mere servant, but she was not free and did not have the legal rights of a free wife. The children of a concubine could, in some instances, become equal heirs with the children of the free wife. After the period of the Judges concubines may have become more of a royal prerogative (2 Sam 21:10-14; 1 Kgs 11:3). gave birth:
Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, Shuah.
The sons of Jokshan:
Sheba and Dedan.
33 The sons of Midian:
Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the sons of Keturah.
34 Abraham was the father of Isaac. The sons of Isaac:
Esau and Israel.
35 The sons of Esau:
Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jalam, and Korah.
36 The sons of Eliphaz:
Teman, Omar, Zephi,#tc Many medieval Hebrew mss, along with some LXX mss and the Syriac, read “Zepho” (see Gen 36:11). Gatam, Kenaz, and (by Timna) Amalek.#tn The Hebrew text has simply, “and Timna and Amalek,” but Gen 36:12 indicates that Timna, a concubine of Eliphaz, was the mother of Amalek. See also v. 39 below, which states that Timna was the sister of Lotan.
37 The sons of Reuel:
Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.
The Descendants of Seir
38 The sons of Seir:
Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan.
39 The sons of Lotan:
Hori and Homam. (Timna was Lotan’s sister.)#tn Perhaps this is the Timna mentioned in v. 36.
40 The sons of Shobal:
Alyan,#tc Some medieval Hebrew mss and a few LXX mss read “Alvan” (see Gen 36:23). Manahath, Ebal, Shephi,#tc A few medieval Hebrew mss read “Shepho” (see Gen 36:23). and Onam.
The sons of Zibeon:
Aiah and Anah.
41 The son#tn Heb “sons.” The Hebrew text has the plural, but only one son is listed. For stylistic reasons the singular “son” was used in the translation. of Anah:
The sons of Dishon:
Hamran,#tn The parallel geneaology in Gen 36:26 has the variant spelling “Hemdan.” Some English versions follow the variant spelling here (e.g., NAB, NIV, NCV, CEV, NLT). Eshban, Ithran, and Keran.
42 The sons of Ezer:
Bilhan, Zaavan, Jaakan.#tn The parallel geneaology in Gen 36:27 has the variant spelling “Akan.” Among English versions that use the variant spelling here are NIV, NCV, NLT.
The sons of Dishan:#tc The MT reads “Dishon” here, but this should be emended to “Dishan.” See the list in v. 38 and Gen 36:28.
Uz and Aran.
Kings of Edom
43 These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:
Bela son of Beor; the name of his city was Dinhabah.
44 When Bela died, Jobab son of Zerah from Bozrah, succeeded him.#tn Heb “ruled in his place,” here and in vv. 45-50.
45 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites succeeded him.
46 When Husham died, Hadad son of Bedad succeeded him. He struck down the Midianites in the plains of Moab; the name of his city was Avith.
47 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah succeeded him.
48 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth on the river#tn Or “near the river.” sn The river may refer to the Euphrates River (cf. NRSV, CEV, NLT). succeeded him.
49 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan son of Achbor succeeded him.
50 When Baal-Hanan died, Hadad succeeded him; the name of his city was Pai.#tc Many medieval Hebrew mss, along with some LXX mss, the Syriac, and Vulgate, read “Pau.” See also Gen 36:39. His wife was Mehetabel, daughter of Matred, daughter of Me-Zahab.
51 Hadad died.
Tribal Chiefs of Edom
The tribal chiefs of Edom were:
Timna, Alvah, Jetheth, 52 Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon, 53 Kenaz, Teman,#tn The parallel genealogy in Gen 36:42 has the variant spelling “Temam.” Mibzar, 54 Magdiel, Iram.#tn Each of the names in this list is preceded by the word “chief” in the Hebrew text. This has not been included in the translation because it would appear very redundant to the modern reader. These were the tribal chiefs of Edom.
Loading reference in secondary version...