1Paul, #[Gal. 1:10] a servant#1:1 For the contextual rendering of the Greek word doulos, see Preface of Christ Jesus, #1 Cor. 1:1; [1 Cor. 9:1; Heb. 5:4]; See 2 Cor. 1:1 called to be an apostle, #See Acts 13:2set apart for the gospel of God, 2which #Titus 1:2 he promised beforehand #ch. 3:21; 16:26; Luke 1:70through his prophets in the holy Scriptures, 3concerning his Son, #See Matt. 1:1 who was descended from David#1:3 Or who came from the offspring of David #Gal. 4:4according to the flesh 4and #[Acts 13:33] was declared to be the Son of God #2 Cor. 13:4; Eph. 1:19, 20; Phil. 3:10; [Acts 10:38; 26:23]in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, 5through whom #ch. 12:3; 15:15 we have received grace and #See Acts 1:25 apostleship #ch. 6:16; 16:26; 1 Pet. 1:2; [ch. 15:18; Acts 6:7] to bring about the obedience of faith for the sake of his name #See Acts 9:15among all the nations, 6including you who are #Rev. 17:14; [ch. 8:28, 30]called to belong to Jesus Christ,
7To all those in Rome who are loved by God and called to be saints:
1 Cor. 1:3
Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Longing to Go to Rome
8First, #1 Cor. 1:4; Eph. 1:15, 16; Phil. 1:3; Col. 1:3, 4; [ch. 6:17; Phil. 4:6; 2 Tim. 1:3] I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, #ch. 16:19; [1 Thess. 1:8]because your faith is proclaimed in all the world. 9#Phil. 1:8; 1 Thess. 2:5, 10; [ch. 9:1; 2 Cor. 1:23; 11:10, 31] For God is my witness, #See Acts 24:14 whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, #2 Tim. 1:3that without ceasing I mention you 10always in my prayers, asking that somehow #ch. 15:32; [1 Thess. 3:10]by God’s will I may now at last succeed in coming to you. 11For #ch. 15:22, 23; [Acts 19:21]I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift to strengthen you— 12that is, that we may be mutually encouraged #See 2 Pet. 1:1by each other’s faith, both yours and mine. 13I do not want you to be unaware, brothers,#1:13 Or brothers and sisters. In New Testament usage, depending on the context, the plural Greek word adelphoi (translated “brothers”) may refer either to brothers or to brothers and sisters that #ch. 15:22, 23; [Acts 19:21] I have often intended to come to you (but #ch. 15:22; [1 Thess. 2:18] thus far have been prevented), in order that I may reap some #Phil. 4:17; [John 4:36]harvest among you as well as among the rest of the Gentiles. 14#1 Cor. 9:16 I am under obligation both to Greeks and to #See Acts 28:2barbarians,#1:14 That is, non-Greeks both to the wise and to the foolish. 15So I am eager to preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome.
The Righteous Shall Live by Faith
16For #[Ps. 40:9, 10]; See Mark 8:38 I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is #1 Cor. 1:18, 24 the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew #ch. 2:9; See Acts 3:26 first and also to #[Mark 7:26]; See John 7:35the Greek. 17For in it #ch. 3:21; [2 Cor. 5:21; Phil. 3:9] the righteousness of God is revealed #See ch. 9:30 from faith for faith,#1:17 Or beginning and ending in faith #Gal. 3:11; Heb. 10:38; Cited from Hab. 2:4as it is written, “The righteous shall live by faith.”#1:17 Or The one who by faith is righteous shall live
God’s Wrath on Unrighteousness
18For #Eph. 5:6; Col. 3:6; [ch. 5:9] the wrath of God #[ch. 2:5]is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth. 19For what can be #ch. 2:14, 15; Acts 14:17; 17:24-27known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. 20For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, #[Ps. 19:1-6; Jer. 5:21, 22]have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world,#1:20 Or clearly perceived from the creation of the world in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse. 21For although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they #2 Kgs. 17:15; Jer. 2:5; Eph. 4:17, 18became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened. 22#Jer. 10:14; 1 Cor. 1:20Claiming to be wise, they became fools, 23and #Ps. 106:20; Jer. 2:11; [Deut. 4:16-18; Acts 17:29] exchanged the glory of #1 Tim. 1:17the immortal God for images resembling mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things.
24Therefore #ver. 26, 28; [Eph. 4:19] God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to #[1 Thess. 4:4]the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves, 25because they exchanged the truth about God for #Isa. 28:15; 44:19, 20; Jer. 10:14; Amos 2:4; [2 Thess. 2:11] a lie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, #ch. 9:5who is blessed forever! Amen.
26For this reason #ver. 24, 28 God gave them up to #[Col. 3:5; 1 Thess. 4:5]dishonorable passions. For their women exchanged natural relations for those that are contrary to nature; 27and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were consumed with passion for one another, #Lev. 18:22; 20:13men committing shameless acts with men and receiving in themselves the due penalty for their error.
28And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God, #ver. 24, 26 God gave them up to #[Jer. 6:30] a debased mind to do #[Eph. 5:4]what ought not to be done. 29They were filled with all manner of unrighteousness, evil, covetousness, malice. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, maliciousness. They are gossips, 30slanderers, haters of God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 31foolish, faithless, heartless, ruthless. 32Though they know #ch. 2:26; 8:4 God’s righteous decree that those who practice such things #ch. 6:21 deserve to die, they not only do them but #Luke 11:48; Acts 8:1; 22:20; [1 Cor. 13:6; 2 Thess. 2:12]give approval to those who practice them.