Jephthah Delivers Israel
1Now #Heb. 11:32 Jephthah the Gileadite was #ch. 6:12; 2 Kgs. 5:1a mighty warrior, but he was the son of a prostitute. Gilead was the father of Jephthah. 2And Gilead’s wife also bore him sons. And when his wife’s sons grew up, they drove Jephthah out and said to him, “You shall not have an inheritance in our father’s house, for you are the son of another woman.” 3Then Jephthah fled from his brothers and lived in the land of #2 Sam. 10:6, 8 Tob, and #See ch. 9:4; [1 Sam. 22:2]worthless fellows collected around Jephthah and went out with him.
4After a time the Ammonites made war against Israel. 5And when the Ammonites made war against Israel, the elders of Gilead went to bring Jephthah from the land of #[See ver. 3 above]Tob. 6And they said to Jephthah, “Come and be our leader, that we may fight against the Ammonites.” 7But Jephthah said to the elders of Gilead, “Did you not hate me and drive me out of my father’s house? Why have you come to me now when you are in distress?” 8And the elders of Gilead said to Jephthah, “That is why we have turned to you now, that you may go with us and fight against the Ammonites and #ch. 10:18be our head over all the inhabitants of Gilead.” 9Jephthah said to the elders of Gilead, “If you bring me home again to fight against the Ammonites, and the Lord gives them over to me, I will be your head.” 10And the elders of Gilead said to Jephthah, #Jer. 42:5“The Lord will be witness between us, if we do not do as you say.” 11So Jephthah went with the elders of Gilead, and the people #ver. 6, 8; ch. 10:18 made him head and leader over them. And Jephthah spoke all his words #1 Sam. 10:19, 25; 11:15; 12:7; [ch. 20:1; 1 Sam. 10:17] before the Lord at #ch. 10:17Mizpah.
12Then Jephthah sent messengers to the king of the Ammonites and said, “What do you have against me, that you have come to me to fight against my land?” 13And the king of the Ammonites answered the messengers of Jephthah, #See Num. 21:24-26 “Because Israel on coming up from Egypt took away my land, from the #Num. 21:13 Arnon to the #Gen. 32:22Jabbok and to the Jordan; now therefore restore it peaceably.” 14Jephthah again sent messengers to the king of the Ammonites 15and said to him, “Thus says Jephthah: #Deut. 2:9, 19Israel did not take away the land of Moab or the land of the Ammonites, 16but when they came up from Egypt, Israel went through the wilderness #Num. 14:25; Deut. 1:40 to the Red Sea and #Num. 13:26came to Kadesh. 17#Num. 20:14 Israel then sent messengers to the king of Edom, saying, ‘Please let us pass through your land,’ #See Num. 20:18-21 but the king of Edom would not listen. And they sent also to the king of Moab, but he would not consent. So Israel #Num. 20:1; Deut. 1:46remained at Kadesh.
18“Then they journeyed through the wilderness and #Num. 21:4; See Deut. 2:1-8 went around the land of Edom and the land of Moab and #Num. 21:11 arrived on the east side of the land of Moab and #Num. 21:13; 22:36camped on the other side of the Arnon. But they did not enter the territory of Moab, for the Arnon was the boundary of Moab. 19#For ver. 19-22, see Num. 21:21-26; Deut. 2:26-37Israel then sent messengers to Sihon king of the Amorites, king of Heshbon, and Israel said to him, ‘Please let us pass through your land to our country,’ 20but Sihon did not trust Israel to pass through his territory, so Sihon gathered all his people together and encamped at Jahaz and fought with Israel. 21And the Lord, the God of Israel, gave Sihon and all his people into the hand of Israel, and they defeated them. So Israel took possession of all the land of the Amorites, who inhabited that country. 22And they took possession of all the territory of the Amorites from the Arnon to the Jabbok and from the wilderness to the Jordan. 23So then the Lord, the God of Israel, dispossessed the Amorites from before his people Israel; and are you to take possession of them? 24Will you not possess what #Num. 21:29; 1 Kgs. 11:7 Chemosh your god gives you to possess? #Deut. 9:5; 18:12; Josh. 3:10And all that the Lord our God has dispossessed before us, we will possess. 25Now are you any better than #Num. 22:2; Josh. 24:9; Mic. 6:5Balak the son of Zippor, king of Moab? Did he ever contend against Israel, or did he ever go to war with them? 26While Israel lived #Num. 21:25 in Heshbon and its villages, and #Deut. 2:36in Aroer and its villages, and in all the cities that are on the banks of the Arnon, 300 years, why did you not deliver them within that time? 27I therefore have not sinned against you, and you do me wrong by making war on me. #Gen. 16:5; 18:25; 31:53; 1 Sam. 24:12, 15The Lord, the Judge, decide this day between the people of Israel and the people of Ammon.” 28But the king of the Ammonites did not listen to the words of Jephthah that he sent to him.
Jephthah’s Tragic Vow
29 # See ch. 3:10 Then the Spirit of the Lord was upon Jephthah, and he passed through Gilead and Manasseh and passed on to Mizpah of Gilead, and from Mizpah of Gilead he passed on to the Ammonites. 30And Jephthah #Gen. 28:20; 1 Sam. 1:11made a vow to the Lord and said, “If you will give the Ammonites into my hand, 31then whatever#11:31 Or whoever comes out from the doors of my house to meet me when I return in peace from the Ammonites #[Lev. 27:2; 1 Sam. 1:28] shall be the Lord’s, and #Ps. 66:13I will offer it#11:31 Or him up for a burnt offering.” 32So Jephthah crossed over to the Ammonites to fight against them, and the Lord gave them into his hand. 33And he struck them from Aroer to the neighborhood of #Ezek. 27:17Minnith, twenty cities, and as far as Abel-keramim, with a great blow. So the Ammonites were subdued before the people of Israel.
34Then Jephthah came to his home at #ver. 11; ch. 10:17 Mizpah. And behold, his daughter came out to meet him #Ex. 15:20; 1 Sam. 18:6; Ps. 68:25; Jer. 31:4with tambourines and with dances. She was his only child; besides her he had neither son nor daughter. 35And as soon as he saw her, he tore his clothes and said, “Alas, my daughter! You have brought me very low, and you have become the cause of great trouble to me. For I have opened my mouth to the Lord, #Num. 30:2; [Eccles. 5:4, 5]and I cannot take back my vow.” 36And she said to him, “My father, you have opened your mouth to the Lord; do to me according to what has gone out of your mouth, now that the Lord has avenged you on your enemies, on the Ammonites.” 37So she said to her father, “Let this thing be done for me: leave me alone two months, that I may go up and down on the mountains and weep for my virginity, I and my companions.” 38So he said, “Go.” Then he sent her away for two months, and she departed, she and her companions, and wept for her virginity on the mountains. 39And at the end of two months, she returned to her father, #ver. 31who did with her according to his vow that he had made. She had never known a man, and it became a custom in Israel 40that the daughters of Israel went year by year to lament the daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite four days in the year.