Psalms 120
Prayer of a Returned Exile
1A song of ascents.#A song of ascents: Ps 120–134 all begin with this superscription. Most probably these fifteen Psalms once formed a collection of Psalms sung when pilgrims went to Jerusalem, since one “ascended” to Jerusalem (1 Kgs 12:28; Ps 24:3; 122:4; Lk 2:42) or to the house of God or to an altar (1 Kgs 12:33; 2 Kgs 23:2; Ps 24:3). Less probable is the explanation that these Psalms were sung by the exiles when they “ascended” to Jerusalem from Babylonia (cf. Ezr 7:9). The idea, found in the Mishnah, that the fifteen steps on which the Levites sang corresponded to these fifteen Psalms (Middot 2:5) must underlie the Vulgate translation canticum graduum, “song of the steps” or “gradual song.”
The Lord answered me
when I called in my distress:#Jon 2:3.
2Lord, deliver my soul from lying lips,
from a treacherous tongue.#Ps 12:3–5; Sir 51:3.
3What will he inflict on you,
O treacherous tongue,
and what more besides?#More besides: a common curse formula in Hebrew was “May the Lord do such and such evils to you [the evils being specified], and add still more to them,” cf. 1 Sm 3:17; 14:44; 25:22. Here the psalmist is at a loss for a suitable malediction.
4A warrior’s arrows
sharpened with coals of brush wood!#Coals of brush wood: coals made from the stalk of the broom plant burn with intense heat. The psalmist thinks of lighted coals cast at his enemies.#Ps 11:6; 140:11; Prv 16:27.
5#Meshech was in the far north (Gn 10:2) and Kedar was a tribe of the north Arabian desert (Gn 25:13). The psalmist may be thinking generally of all aliens living among inhospitable peoples.Alas, I am a foreigner in Meshech,
I live among the tents of Kedar!
6Too long do I live
among those who hate peace.
7When I speak of peace,
they are for war.#Ps 35:20; 140:3–4.

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