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Israel’s Rejection of Christ
1I speak the truth in Christ#Rm 1:9; 2Co 11:10; Gl 1:20; 1Tm 2:7  — I am not lying; my conscience testifies to me through the Holy Spirit#9:1 Or testifying with me by the Holy Spirit  —  2that I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. 3For I could wish#Ex 32:32 that I myself were cursed#1Co 12:3; 16:22; Gl 1:8,9 and cut off#9:3 Lit to be anathema from Christ for the benefit of my brothers and sisters, my own flesh and blood. 4They are Israelites,#Rm 8:6 and to them belong the adoption,#Ex 4:22; Rm 8:15 the glory,#Ex 40:34; 1Kg 8:11; Ezk 1:28; Heb 9:5 the covenants,#Gn 17:2; Dt 29:14; Lk 1:72; Ac 3:25; Eph 2:12 the giving of the law,#Dt 4:13-14; Ps 147:19 the temple service,#Dt 7:6; 14:1; Heb 9:1,6 and the promises.#Ac 2:39; 13:32; Eph 2:12 5The ancestors are theirs,#Ac 3:13; Rm 11:28 and from them, by physical descent,#9:5 Lit them, according to the flesh came the Christ,#Mt 1:1-16; Rm 1:3 who is God#Jn 1:1; Col 2:9 over all,#Col 1:16-19 praised forever.#9:5 Or the Messiah, the one who is over all, the God who is blessed forever, or Messiah. God, who is over all, be blessed forever#Rm 1:25 Amen.
God’s Gracious Election of Israel
6Now it is not as though the word of God has failed,#Nm 23:19 because not all who are descended from Israel are Israel.#Jn 1:47; Rm 2:28-29; Gl 6:16 7Neither are all of Abraham’s children his descendants.#9:7 Lit seed#Jn 8:33,39; Gl 4:23 On the contrary, your offspring will be traced#9:7 Lit called through Isaac.#9:7Gn 21:12#Gn 21:12; Heb 11:18 8That is, it is not the children by physical descent#9:8 Lit children of the flesh who are God’s children,#Rm 8:14 but the children of the promise#Rm 4:13,16; Gl 3:29; 4:28; Heb 11:11 are considered to be the offspring. 9For this is the statement of the promise: At this time I will come, and Sarah will have a son.#9:9Gn 18:10,14#Gn 18:10,14 10And not only that,#Rm 5:3 but Rebekah conceived children#Gn 25:21 through one man, our father Isaac. 11For though her sons had not been born yet or done anything good or bad, so that God’s purpose according to election might stand —#Rm 4:17; 8:28 12not from works but from the one who calls — she was told, The older will serve the younger.#9:12Gn 25:23#Gn 25:23 13As it is written: I have loved Jacob, but I have hated Esau.#9:13Mal 1:2-3#Mal 1:2-3
God’s Selection Is Just
14What should we say then?#Rm 3:5 Is there injustice with God?#2Ch 19:7; Rm 2:11 Absolutely not!#Lk 20:16 15For he tells Moses, I will show mercy to whom I will show mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.#9:15Ex 33:19#Ex 33:19 16So then, it does not depend on human will or effort#Gl 2:2 but on God who shows mercy.#Eph 2:8 17For the Scripture tells Pharaoh, I raised you up for this reason so that I may display my power in you and that my name may be proclaimed in the whole earth.#9:17Ex 9:16#Ex 9:16 18So then, he has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy and he hardens whom he wants to harden.#Ex 4:21; 7:3; 9:12; 10:20,27; 11:10; 14:4,7; Dt 2:30; Jos 11:20; Jn 12:40; Rm 11:7,25
19You will say to me,#Rm 11:19; 1Co 15:25; Jms 2:18 therefore, “Why then does he still find fault?#Rm 3:7 For who can resist his will?” #2Ch 20:6; Jb 9:12; Dn 4:35 20But who are you, a mere man, to talk back to God?#Jb 33:13 Will what is formed say to the one who formed it, “Why did you make me like this?” #Is 29:16; 45:9; 64:8; Jr 18:6; 2Tm 2:20 21Or has the potter no right over the clay,#Is 64:8; Jr 18:6 to make from the same lump one piece of pottery for honor and another for dishonor? 22And what if God, wanting to display his wrath and to make his power known, endured with much patience#Rm 2:4 objects of wrath prepared for destruction?#Pr 16:4; 1Pt 2:8 23And what if he did this to make known the riches of his glory#Rm 2:4; Eph 3:16 on objects of mercy#Ac 9:15 that he prepared beforehand for glory#Rm 8:29  —  24on us, the ones he also called,#Rm 8:28 not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles?#Rm 3:29 25As it#9:25 Or he also says in Hosea,
I will call Not My People, My People,
and she who is Unloved, Beloved. # 9:25 Hs 2:23 # Hs 2:23; 1Pt 2:10
26 And it will be in the place where they were told,
you are not my people,
there they will be called sons of the living God. # 9:26 Hs 1:10 # Hs 1:10; Mt 16:16
27But Isaiah cries out concerning Israel,
Though the number of Israelites
is like the sand of the sea, # Gn 22:17
only the remnant will be saved; # Rm 11:5
28 since the Lord will execute his sentence
completely and decisively on the earth. # 9:28 Or land # 9:27-28 Is 10:22-23; 28:22; Hs 1:10 # Is 10:22-23; 28:22
29And just as Isaiah predicted:
If the Lord of Hosts # 9:29 Gk Sabaoth; or the Lord of Armies had not left us offspring,#Jms 5:4
we would have become like Sodom,
and we would have been made like Gomorrah. # 9:29 Is 1:9 # Dt 29:23; Is 1:9; 13:19; Jr 49:18; 50:40; Am 4:11
Israel’s Present State
30What should we say then?#Rm 9:14 Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have obtained righteousness — namely the righteousness that comes from faith.#Rm 1:17; 3:21; 10:6; Gl 2:16; 3:24; Php 3:9; Heb 11:7 31But Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness,#Is 51:1; Rm 10:2,20; 11:7 has not achieved the righteousness of the law.#9:31 Other mss read the law for righteousness#Gl 5:4 32Why is that? Because they did not pursue it by faith, but as if it were by works.#9:32 Other mss add of the law They stumbled over the stumbling stone.#1Pt 2:6,8 33As it is written,
Look, I am putting a stone in Zion to stumble over
and a rock to trip over,
and the one who believes on him # Rm 10:11
will not be put to shame. # 9:33 Is 8:14; 28:16 # Is 8:14; 28:16; Rm 5:5