The Priestly Garments
1“Have your brother Aaron, with his sons, come to you from the Israelites to serve me as priest — Aaron, his sons Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.#Nm 18:7; Ps 99:6; Heb 5:1 2Make holy garments#Ex 29:5,9; 31:10; 39:1-2; Lv 8:7,30; Nm 20:26,28 for your brother Aaron, for glory and beauty. 3You are to instruct all the skilled artisans,#28:3 Lit all wise of heart#Ex 31:6; 35:25; 36:1 whom I have filled with a spirit of wisdom, to make Aaron’s garments for consecrating him to serve me as priest. 4These are the garments that they must make: a breastpiece, an ephod, a robe, a specially woven tunic,#28:4 Hb obscure a turban, and a sash. They are to make holy garments for your brother Aaron and his sons so that they may serve me as priests. 5They should use#28:5 Lit receive gold; blue, purple, and scarlet yarn; and fine linen.
6“They#Ex 39:2-7; Lv 8:7 are to make the ephod of finely spun linen embroidered#28:6 Or woven with gold, and with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn. 7It must have two shoulder pieces attached to its two edges so that it can be joined together. 8The artistically woven waistband that is on the ephod#28:8 Lit waistband of its ephod, which is on it must be of one piece,#28:8 Lit piece with the ephod according to the same workmanship of gold, of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and of finely spun linen.
9“Take two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of Israel’s sons: 10six of their names on the first stone and the remaining six names on the second stone, in the order of their birth. 11Engrave the two stones with the names of Israel’s sons as a gem cutter engraves a seal. Mount them, surrounded with gold filigree settings. 12Fasten both stones on the shoulder pieces of the ephod as memorial stones for the Israelites. Aaron will carry their names on his two shoulders before the Lord as a reminder.#Ex 28:29; Jos 4:7; Zch 6:14 13Fashion gold filigree settings 14and two chains of pure gold; you will make them of braided cord work, and attach the cord chains to the settings.
15“You#Ex 39:8-21 are to make an embroidered breastpiece for making decisions.#28:15 Used for determining God’s will; Nm 27:21 Make it with the same workmanship as the ephod; make it of gold, of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and of finely spun linen. 16It must be square and folded double, nine inches long and nine inches wide.#28:16 Lit a span its length and a span its width 17Place a setting of gemstones#28:17 Many of these stones cannot be identified with certainty. on it, four rows of stones:
The first row should be
a row of carnelian, topaz, and emerald;#28:17 Or beryl
18the second row,
a turquoise,#28:18 Or malachite, or garnet a lapis lazuli, and a diamond;#28:18 Hb obscure; LXX, Vg read jasper
19the third row,
a jacinth,#28:19 Hb obscure an agate, and an amethyst;
20and the fourth row,
a beryl, an onyx, and a jasper.
They should be adorned with gold filigree in their settings. 21The twelve stones are to correspond to the names of Israel’s sons. Each stone must be engraved like a seal, with one of the names of the twelve tribes.
22“You are to make braided chains#28:22 The same chains mentioned in v. 14 of pure gold cord work for the breastpiece. 23Fashion two gold rings for the breastpiece and attach them to its two corners. 24Then attach the two gold cords to the two gold rings at the corners of the breastpiece. 25Attach the other ends of the two cords to the two filigree settings, and in this way attach them to the ephod’s shoulder pieces in the front. 26Make two other gold rings and put them at the two other corners of the breastpiece on the edge that is next to the inner border of the ephod. 27Make two more gold rings and attach them to the bottom of the ephod’s two shoulder pieces on its front, close to its seam,#28:27 The place where the shoulder pieces join the front of the ephod and above the ephod’s woven waistband. 28The artisans are to tie the breastpiece from its rings to the rings of the ephod with a cord of blue yarn, so that the breastpiece is above the ephod’s waistband and does not come loose from the ephod.
29“Whenever he enters the sanctuary, Aaron is to carry the names of Israel’s sons over his heart on the breastpiece for decisions, as a continual reminder before the Lord. 30Place the Urim and Thummim#Lv 8:8; Nm 27:21; Dt 33:8; Ezr 2:63; Neh 7:65 in the breastpiece for decisions, so that they will also be over Aaron’s heart whenever he comes before the Lord. Aaron will continually carry the means of decisions for the Israelites over his heart before the Lord.
31“You#Ex 39:22-31 are to make the robe of the ephod entirely of blue yarn. 32There should be an opening at its top in the center of it. Around the opening, there should be a woven collar with an opening like that of body armor#28:32 Hb obscure so that it does not tear. 33Make pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn on its lower hem and all around it. Put gold bells between them all the way around, 34so that gold bells and pomegranates alternate around the lower hem of the robe. 35The robe will be worn by Aaron whenever he ministers, and its sound will be heard when he enters the sanctuary before the Lord and when he exits, so that he does not die.
36“You are to make a pure gold medallion and engrave it, like the engraving of a seal:#Lv 8:9; Zch 14:20 Holy to the Lord. 37Fasten it to a cord of blue yarn so it can be placed on the turban; the medallion is to be on the front of the turban. 38It will be on Aaron’s forehead so that Aaron may bear the guilt#Lv 10:17; 22:16; Nm 18:1; Is 53:11; Ezk 4:4-6; Jn 1:29; Heb 9:28; 1Pt 2:24 connected with the holy offerings that the Israelites consecrate as all their holy gifts. It is always to be on his forehead, so that they may find acceptance with the Lord.
Other Priestly Garments
39“You are to weave the tunic from fine linen, make a turban of fine linen, and make an embroidered sash. 40Make tunics, sashes, and headbands for Aaron’s sons to give them glory and beauty.#Ex 39:41; Ezk 44:17-18 41Put these on your brother Aaron and his sons; then anoint,#Ex 29:7; 30:30; 40:15; Lv 10:7 ordain,#28:41 Lit anoint them, fill their hand and consecrate#Ex 29:9; Heb 7:28 them, so that they may serve me as priests. 42Make them linen undergarments#Lv 6:10; 16:4; Ezk 44:18 to cover their naked bodies; they must extend from the waist to the thighs. 43These must be worn by Aaron and his sons whenever they enter the tent of meeting or approach the altar to minister in the sanctuary area, so that they do not incur guilt#Ex 20:26; Lv 5:1,17; 20:19 and die. This is to be a permanent statute#Ex 27:21; Lv 17:7 for Aaron and for his future descendants.