Parallel
19
1 After these things I heard what sounded like the loud voice of a vast throng in heaven, saying,
“Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God,
2 because his judgments are true and just.#tn Compare the similar phrase in Rev 16:7.
For he has judged#tn Or “has punished.” See BDAG 568 s.v. κρίνω 5.b.α, describing the OT background which involves both the vindication of the innocent and the punishment of the guilty. the great prostitute
who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality,
and has avenged the blood of his servants#tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1. poured out by her own hands!”#tn Grk “from her hand” (referring to her responsibility in causing the blood of God’s followers to be shed).
3 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative. a second time the crowd shouted, “Hallelujah!” The smoke rises from her forever and ever.#tn Or “her smoke ascends forever and ever.” 4 The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures threw themselves to the ground#tn Grk “creatures fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.” and worshiped God, who was seated on the throne, saying: “Amen! Hallelujah!”
5 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative. a voice came from the throne, saying:
“Praise our God
all you his servants,
and all you who fear Him,
both the small and the great!”
The Wedding Celebration of the Lamb
6 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative. I heard what sounded like the voice of a vast throng, like the roar of many waters and like loud crashes of thunder. They were shouting:#tn Grk “like the voice of a large crowd…saying.” Because of the complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were.”
“Hallelujah!
For the Lord our God,#tc Several mss (א2 P 1611 2053 2344 pc ÏK lat ) read “the Lord our God” (κύριος ὁ θεός ἡμῶν, kurio" Jo qeo" Jhmwn). Other important mss (A 1006 1841 pc), however, omit the “our” (ἡμῶν). Further, certain mss (051 ÏA) omit “Lord” (κύριος), while others (including א*) change the order of the statement to “God our Lord” (ὁ θεός ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν). The expression “the Lord God, the All-Powerful” occurs in 6 other places in Revelation (1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22) and the pronoun “our” is never used. Scribes familiar with the expression in this book, and especially with the frequent κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ (kurio" Jo qeo" Jo pantokratwr; “the Lord God, the All-Powerful”) in the OT Prophets (LXX; cf. Jer 39:19; Hos 12:6; Amos 3:13; 4:13; 5:8, 14, 15, 16, 27; 9:5, 6, 15; Nah 3:5; Zech 10:3), would naturally omit the pronoun. Its presence may have arisen due to liturgical motivations or to conform to the expression “our God” in 19:1, 5, but this seems much less likely than an aversion to using the pronoun here and only here in the Greek Bible in the fuller title κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ. the All-Powerful,#tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…(ὁ) κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22…κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν ὁ π. Rv 19:6.” reigns!
7 Let us rejoice#tn This verb and the next two verbs are hortatory subjunctives (giving exhortations). and exult
and give him glory,
because the wedding celebration of the Lamb has come,
and his bride has made herself ready.
8 She was permitted to be dressed in bright, clean, fine linen”#tn On the term translated “fine linen,” BDAG 185 s.v. βύσσινος states, “made of fine linen, subst. τὸ β. fine linen, linen garment…Rv 18:12…16; 19:8, 14.” (for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints).#sn This phrase is treated as a parenthetical explanation by the author.
9 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative. the angel#tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity. said to me, “Write the following: Blessed are those who are invited to the banquet at the wedding celebration of the Lamb!” He also said to me, “These are the true words of God.” 10 So#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s announcement. I threw myself down#tn Grk “I fell down at his feet.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.” at his feet to worship him, but#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. he said, “Do not do this!#tn On the elliptical expression ὅρα μή (Jora mh) BDAG 720 s.v. ὁράω B.2 states: “Elliptically…ὅρα μή (sc. ποιήσῃς) watch out! don’t do that! Rv 19:10; 22:9.” I am only#tn The lowliness of a slave is emphasized in the Greek text with the emphatic position of σύνδουλος (sundoulo"). The use of “only” helps to bring this nuance out in English. a fellow servant#tn Grk “fellow slave.” See the note on the word “servants” in v. 2. with you and your brothers#tn The Greek term “brother” literally refers to family relationships, but here it is used in a broader sense to connote familial relationships within the family of God (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.a). who hold to the testimony about#tn The genitive ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) has been translated as an objective genitive here. A subjective genitive, also possible, would produce the meaning “who hold to what Jesus testifies.” Jesus. Worship God, for the testimony about Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.”
The Son of God Goes to War
11 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative. I saw heaven opened and here came#tn The phrase “and here came” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou). a white horse! The#tn A new sentence was started in the translation at this point and καί (kai) was not translated because of differences between Greek and English style. one riding it was called “Faithful” and “True,” and with justice#tn Or “in righteousness,” but since the context here involves the punishment of the wicked and the vindication of the saints, “justice” was preferred. he judges and goes to war. 12 His eyes are like a fiery#tn The genitive noun πυρός (puros) has been translated as an attributive genitive (see also Rev 1:14). flame and there are many diadem crowns#tn For the translation of διάδημα (diadhma) as “diadem crown” see L&N 6.196.sn Diadem crowns were a type of crown used as a symbol of the highest ruling authority in a given area, and thus often associated with kingship. on his head. He has#tn Grk “head, having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. a name written#tn Although many translations supply a prepositional phrase to specify what the name was written on (“upon Him,” NASB; “on him,” NIV), there is no location for the name specified in the Greek text. that no one knows except himself. 13 He is dressed in clothing dipped#tc It appears that “dipped” (βεβαμμένον, bebammenon), supported by several uncials and other witnesses (A 051 Ï), is the original reading. Due to the lack of the preposition “in” (ἐν, en) after the verb (βεβαμμένον αἵματι, bebammenon {aimati), and also probably because of literary allusions to Isa 63:3, several mss and versions seem to have changed the text to “sprinkled” (either ῥεραντισμένον [rJerantismenon] in P 2329 al; ἐρραντισμένον [errantismenon] in 1006 1841; ἐρραμμένον [errammenon] in 2053 2062; or ῥεραμμένον [rJerammenon] in 1611; or in one case περιρεραμμένον [perirerammenon] in א[2]). The reading most likely to give rise to the others is “dipped.”tn Or perhaps “soaked.” in blood, and he is called#tn Grk “the name of him is called.” the Word of God. 14 The#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. armies that are in heaven, dressed in white, clean, fine linen,#tn On the term translated “fine linen,” BDAG 185 s.v. βύσσινος states, “made of fine linen, subst. τὸ β. fine linen, linen garment…Rv 18:12, 16; 19:8, 14.” were following him on white horses. 15 From his mouth extends a sharp sword, so that with it he can strike the nations.#tn Or “the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”). He#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. will rule#tn Grk “will shepherd.” them with an iron rod,#tn Or “scepter.” The Greek term ῥάβδος (rJabdo") can mean either “rod” or “scepter.” sn A quotation from Ps 2:9 (see also Rev 2:27, 12:5). and he stomps the winepress#sn He stomps the winepress. See Isa 63:3, where Messiah does this alone (usually several individuals would join in the process), and Rev 14:20. of the furious#tn The genitive θυμοῦ (qumou) has been translated as an attributed genitive. Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumos) and ὀργή (orgh) in Rev 16:19 and 19:15 are taken to be a strengthening of the thought as in the OT and Qumran literature (Exod 32:12; Jer 32:37; Lam 2:3; CD 10:9). wrath of God, the All-Powerful.#tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…(ὁ) κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.” 16 He has a name written on his clothing and on his thigh: “King of kings and Lord of lords.”
17 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative. I saw one angel standing in#tn The precise significance of ἐν (en) here is difficult to determine. the sun, and he shouted in a loud voice to all the birds flying high in the sky:#tn On μεσουρανήματι (mesouranhmati) here see L&N 1.10: “high in the sky, midpoint in the sky, directly overhead, straight above in the sky.” The birds mentioned here are carrion birds like vultures, circling high overhead, and now being summoned to feast on the corpses.
“Come, gather around for the great banquet#tn This is the same Greek word (δεῖπνον, deipnon) used in 19:9. of God,
18 to eat#tn The ἵνα (Jina) clause, insofar as it is related to the first imperative, has the force of an imperative. your fill#tn The idea of eating “your fill” is evident in the context with the use of χορτάζω (cortazw) in v. 21. of the flesh of kings,
the flesh of generals,#tn Grk “chiliarchs”; normally a chiliarch was a military officer commanding a thousand soldiers, but here probably used of higher-ranking commanders like generals (see L&N 55.15; cf. Rev 6:15).
the flesh of powerful people,
the flesh of horses and those who ride them,
and the flesh of all people, both free and slave,#tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.
and small and great!”
19 Then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative. I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies assembled to do battle with the one who rode the horse and with his army. 20 Now#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of an unexpected development in the account: The opposing armies do not come together in battle; rather the leader of one side is captured. the beast was seized, and along with him the false prophet who had performed the signs on his behalf#tn For this meaning see BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνώπιον 4.b, “by the authority of, on behalf of Rv 13:12, 14; 19:20.” – signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. Both of them were thrown alive into the lake of fire burning with sulfur.#tn Traditionally, “brimstone.” 21 The#tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. others were killed by the sword that extended from the mouth of the one who rode the horse, and all the birds gorged#tn On the translation of ἐχορτάσθησαν (ecortasqhsan) BDAG 1087 s.v. χορτάζω 1.a states, “of animals, pass. in act. sense πάντα τὰ ὄρνεα ἐχορτάσθησαν ἐκ τῶν σαρκῶν αὐτῶν all the birds gorged themselves with their flesh Rv 19:21 (cp. TestJud. 21:8).” themselves with their flesh.