1 When King Hezekiah heard this,#tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2. he tore his clothes, put on sackcloth, and went to the Lord’s temple. 2 Eliakim the palace supervisor, Shebna the scribe, and the leading priests,#tn Heb “elders of the priests” (so KJV, NAB, NASB); NCV “the older priests”; NRSV, TEV, CEV “the senior priests.” clothed in sackcloth, sent this message to the prophet Isaiah son of Amoz: 3 “This is what Hezekiah says:#tn In the Hebrew text this verse begins with “they said to him” (cf. NRSV). ‘This is a day of distress, insults,#tn Or “rebuke” (KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV), or “correction.” and humiliation,#tn Or “contempt”; NAB, NIV, NRSV “disgrace.” as when a baby is ready to leave the birth canal, but the mother lacks the strength to push it through.#tn Heb “when sons come to the cervical opening and there is no strength to give birth.” 4 Perhaps the Lord your God will hear all these things the chief adviser has spoken on behalf of his master, the king of Assyria, who sent him to taunt the living God.#tn Heb “all the words of the chief adviser whom his master, the king of Assyria, sent to taunt the living God.” When the Lord your God hears, perhaps he will punish him for the things he has said.#tn Heb “and rebuke the words which the Lord your God hears.” So pray for this remnant that remains.’”#tn Heb “and lift up a prayer on behalf of the remnant that is found.”
5 When King Hezekiah’s servants came to Isaiah, 6 Isaiah said to them, “Tell your master this: ‘This is what the Lord says: “Don’t be afraid because of the things you have heard – these insults the king of Assyria’s servants have hurled against me.#tn Heb “by which the servants of the king of Assyria have insulted me.” 7 Look, I will take control of his mind;#tn Heb “I will put in him a spirit.” The precise sense of רוּחַ (ruakh, “spirit”) is uncertain in this context. It may refer to a spiritual being who will take control of his mind (see 1 Kgs 22:19), or it could refer to a disposition of concern and fear. In either case the Lord’s sovereignty over the king is apparent. he will receive a report and return to his own land. I will cut him down#tn Heb “cause him to fall” (so KJV, ASV, NAB), that is, “kill him.” with a sword in his own land.”’”
8 When the chief adviser heard the king of Assyria had departed from Lachish, he left and went to Libnah, where the king was campaigning.#tn Heb “and the chief adviser returned and he found the king of Assyria fighting against Libnah, for he heard that he had departed from Lachish.” 9 The king#tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king) has been specified in the translation for clarity. heard that King Tirhakah of Ethiopia#tn Heb “Cush” (so NASB); NIV, NCV “the Cushite king of Egypt.” was marching out to fight him.#tn Heb “heard concerning Tirhakah king of Cush, ‘He has come out to fight with you.’” He again sent#tn The Hebrew text has, “and he heard and he sent,” but the parallel in 2 Kgs 19:9 has וַיָּשָׁב וַיִּשְׁלַח (vayyashav vayyishlakh, “and he returned and he sent”), i.e., “he again sent.” messengers to Hezekiah, ordering them: 10 “Tell King Hezekiah of Judah this: ‘Don’t let your God in whom you trust mislead you when he says, “Jerusalem will not be handed over to the king of Assyria.” 11 Certainly you have heard how the kings of Assyria have annihilated all lands.#tn Heb “Look, you have heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all the lands, annihilating them.” Do you really think you will be rescued?#tn Heb “and will you be rescued?” The rhetorical question expects the answer, “No, of course not!” 12 Were the nations whom my predecessors#tn Heb “fathers” (so KJV, NAB, NASB); NIV “forefathers”; NCV “ancestors.” destroyed – the nations of Gozan, Haran, Rezeph, and the people of Eden in Telassar – rescued by their gods?#tn Heb “Did the gods of the nations whom my fathers destroyed rescue them – Gozan and Haran, and Rezeph and the sons of Eden who are in Telassar?” 13 Where are the king of Hamath, the king of Arpad, and the kings of Lair,#sn Lair was a city located in northeastern Babylon. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 235. Sepharvaim, Hena, and Ivvah?’”
14 Hezekiah took the letter#tc The Hebrew text has the plural, “letters.” The final mem (ם) may be dittographic (note the initial mem on the form that immediately follows). Some Greek and Aramaic witnesses have the singular. If so, one still has to deal with the yod that is part of the plural ending. J. N. Oswalt refers to various commentators who have suggested ways to understand the plural form (Isaiah [NICOT], 1:652). from the messengers and read it.#tn In the parallel text in 2 Kgs 19:14 the verb has the plural suffix, “them,” but this probably reflects a later harmonization to the preceding textual corruption (of “letter” to “letters”). Then Hezekiah went up to the Lord’s temple and spread it out before the Lord. 15 Hezekiah prayed before the Lord: 16 “O Lord who commands armies, O God of Israel, who is enthroned on the cherubim!#sn Cherubim (singular “cherub”) refers to the images of winged angelic creatures that were above the ark of the covenant. You alone are God over all the kingdoms of the earth. You made the sky#tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context. and the earth. 17 Pay attention, Lord, and hear! Open your eyes, Lord, and observe! Listen to this entire message Sennacherib sent and how he taunts the living God!#tn Heb “Hear all the words of Sennacherib which he sent to taunt the living God.” 18 It is true, Lord, that the kings of Assyria have destroyed all the nations#tn The Hebrew text here has “all the lands,” but the parallel text in 2 Kgs 19:17 has “the nations.” and their lands. 19 They have burned the gods of the nations,#tn Heb “and they put their gods in the fire.” for they are not really gods, but only the product of human hands manufactured from wood and stone. That is why the Assyrians could destroy them.#tn Heb “so they destroyed them” (NASB similar). 20 Now, O Lord our God, rescue us from his power, so all the kingdoms of the earth may know that you alone are the Lord.”#tn The parallel text in 2 Kgs 19:19 reads, “that you, Lord, are the only God.”
21 Isaiah son of Amoz sent this message to Hezekiah: “This is what the Lord God of Israel says: ‘Because you prayed to me concerning King Sennacherib of Assyria,#tn The parallel text in 2 Kgs 19:20 reads, “That which you prayed to me concerning Sennacherib king of Assyria I have heard.” The verb “I have heard” does not appear in Isa 37:21, where אֲשֶׁר (’asher) probably has a causal sense: “because.” 22 this is what the Lord says about him:#tn Heb “this is the word which the Lord has spoken about him.”
“The virgin daughter Zion#sn Zion (Jerusalem) is pictured here as a young, vulnerable daughter whose purity is being threatened by the would-be Assyrian rapist. The personification hints at the reality which the young girls of the city would face if the Assyrians conquer it.
despises you – she makes fun of you;
shakes her head after you.#sn Shaking the head was a mocking gesture of derision.
23 Whom have you taunted and hurled insults at?
At whom have you shouted
and looked so arrogantly?#tn Heb “and lifted your eyes on high?” Cf. NIV “lifted your eyes in pride”; NRSV “haughtily lifted your eyes.”
At the Holy One of Israel!#sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.
24 Through your messengers you taunted the sovereign master,#tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).
‘With my many chariots I climbed up
the high mountains,
the slopes of Lebanon.
I cut down its tall cedars
and its best evergreens.
I invaded its most remote regions,#tn Heb “the height of its extremity”; ASV “its farthest height.”
its thickest woods.
25 I dug wells
and drank water.#tc The Hebrew text has simply, “I dug and drank water.” But the parallel text in 2 Kgs 19:24 has “foreign waters.” זָרִים (zarim, “foreign”) may have accidentally dropped out of the Isaianic text by homoioteleuton (cf. NCV, NIV, NLT). Note that the preceding word, מַיִם (mayim, “water) also ends in mem (ם). The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has “foreign waters” for this line. However, in several other passages the 1QIsaa scroll harmonizes with 2 Kgs 19 against the MT (Isa 36:5; 37:9, 20). Since the addition of “foreign” to this text in Isaiah by a later scribe would be more likely than its deletion, the MT reading should be accepted.
With the soles of my feet I dried up
all the rivers of Egypt.’
26#tn Having quoted the Assyrian king’s arrogant words in vv. 23-24, the Lord now speaks to the king. Certainly you must have heard!#tn Heb “Have you not heard?” The rhetorical question expresses the Lord’s amazement that anyone might be ignorant of what he is about to say.
Long ago I worked it out,
in ancient times I planned#tn Heb “formed” (so KJV, ASV). it,
and now I am bringing it to pass.
The plan is this:
Fortified cities will crash
into heaps of ruins.#tn Heb “and it is to cause to crash into heaps of ruins fortified cities.” The subject of the third feminine singular verb תְהִי (tÿhi) is the implied plan, referred to in the preceding lines with third feminine singular pronominal suffixes.
27 Their residents are powerless;#tn Heb “short of hand”; KJV, ASV “of small power”; NASB “short of strength.”
they are terrified and ashamed.
They are as short-lived as plants in the field
or green vegetation.#tn Heb “they are plants in the field and green vegetation.” The metaphor emphasizes how short-lived these seemingly powerful cities really were. See Ps 90:5-6; Isa 40:6-8, 24.
They are as short-lived as grass on the rooftops#tn Heb “[they are] grass on the rooftops.” See the preceding note.
when it is scorched by the east wind.#tc The Hebrew text has “scorched before the standing grain” (perhaps meaning “before it reaches maturity”), but it is preferable to emend קָמָה (qamah, “standing grain”) to קָדִים (qadim, “east wind”) with the support of 1Q Isaa; cf. J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:657, n. 8.
28 I know where you live
and everything you do
and how you rage against me.#tc Heb “your going out and your coming in and how you have raged against me.” Several scholars have suggested that this line is probably dittographic (note the beginning of the next line). However, most English translations include the statement in question at the end of v. 28 and the beginning of v. 29. Interestingly, the LXX does not have this clause at the end of v. 28 and the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa does not have it at the beginning of v. 29. In light of this ambiguous manuscript evidence, it appears best to retain the clause in both verses.
29 Because you rage against me
and the uproar you create has reached my ears,#tc Heb “and your complacency comes up into my ears.” The parallelism is improved if שַׁאֲנַנְךָ (sha’anankha, “your complacency”) is emended to שְׁאוֹנְךָ (shÿ’onÿkha, “your uproar”). See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 237-38. However, the LXX seems to support the MT and Sennacherib’s cavalier dismissal of Yahweh depicts an arrogant complacency (J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 1:658, n. 10).
I will put my hook in your nose,#sn The word-picture has a parallel in Assyrian sculpture. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 238.
and my bridle between your lips,
and I will lead you back
the way you came.”
30#tn At this point the word concerning the king of Assyria (vv. 22-29) ends and the Lord again addresses Hezekiah and the people directly (see v. 21). “This will be your reminder that I have spoken the truth:#tn Heb “and this is your sign.” In this case the אוֹת (’ot, “sign”) is a future reminder of God’s intervention designated before the actual intervention takes place. For similar “signs” see Exod 3:12 and Isa 7:14-25. This year you will eat what grows wild,#sn This refers to crops that grew up on their own (that is, without cultivation) from the seed planted in past years. and next year#tn Heb “and in the second year” (so ASV). what grows on its own. But the year after that#tn Heb “in the third year” (so KJV, NAB). you will plant seed and harvest crops; you will plant vines and consume their produce.#tn The four plural imperatival verb forms in v. 30b are used rhetorically. The Lord commands the people to plant, harvest, etc. to emphasize the certainty of restored peace and prosperity. 31 Those who remain in Judah will take root in the ground and bear fruit.#tn Heb “The remnant of the house of Judah that is left will add roots below and produce fruit above.”
32 “For a remnant will leave Jerusalem;
survivors will come out of Mount Zion.
The intense devotion of the Lord who commands armies#tn Heb “the zeal of the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts].” In this context the Lord’s “zeal” refers to his intense devotion to and love for his people which prompts him to protect and restore them. will accomplish this.
33 So this is what the Lord says about the king of Assyria:
‘He will not enter this city,
nor will he shoot an arrow here.#tn Heb “there” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV). In terms of English style “here” is expected in collocation with “this” in the previous line.
He will not attack it with his shielded warriors,#tn Heb “[with] a shield” (so ASV, NASB, NRSV).
nor will he build siege works against it.
34 He will go back the way he came –
he will not enter this city,’ says the Lord.
35 I will shield this city and rescue it for the sake of my reputation and because of my promise to David my servant.”’”#tn Heb “for my sake and for the sake of David my servant.”
36 The Lord’s messenger#tn Traditionally, “the angel of the Lord” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). went out and killed 185,000 troops#tn The word “troops” is supplied in the translation for smoothness and clarity. in the Assyrian camp. When they#tn This refers to the Israelites and/or the rest of the Assyrian army. got up early the next morning, there were all the corpses!#tn Heb “look, all of them were dead bodies”; NLT “they found corpses everywhere.” 37 So King Sennacherib of Assyria broke camp and went on his way. He went home and stayed in Nineveh.#tn Heb “and Sennacherib king of Assyria departed and went and returned and lived in Nineveh.” 38 One day,#sn The assassination of King Sennacherib probably took place in 681 b.c. as he was worshiping#tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2. in the temple of his god Nisroch,#sn No such Mesopotamian god is presently known. Perhaps the name Nisroch is a corruption of Nusku. his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer struck him down with the sword.#sn Extra-biblical sources also mention the assassination of Sennacherib, though they refer to only one assassin. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 239-40. They ran away to the land of Ararat; his son Esarhaddon replaced him as king.