Parallel
16
Timothy Joins Paul and Silas
1 He also came to Derbe#sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra. It was about 90 mi (145 km) from Tarsus.map For location see JP1-E2; JP2-E2; JP3-E2. and to Lystra.#sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 25 mi (40 km) south of Iconium.map For location see JP1-E2; JP2-E2; JP3-E2. A disciple#tn Grk “And behold, a disciple.” Here ἰδού (idou) has not been translated. named Timothy was there, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer,#tn L&N 31.103 translates this phrase “the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer.” but whose father was a Greek.#sn His father was a Greek. Timothy was the offspring of a mixed marriage between a Jewish woman (see 2 Tim 1:5) and a Gentile man. On mixed marriages in Judaism, see Neh 13:23-27; Ezra 9:1-10:44; Mal 2:10-16; Jub. 30:7-17; m. Qiddushin 3.12; m. Yevamot 7.5. 2 The brothers in Lystra#sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 25 mi (40 km) south of Iconium. and Iconium#sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 110 mi (175 km) east of Pisidian Antioch. spoke well#tn For this sense of μαρτυρέω (marturew), see BDAG 618 s.v. 2.b. of him.#tn Grk “who was well spoken of by the brothers in Lystra and Iconium.” Because of the awkwardness in English of having two relative clauses follow one another (“who was a believer…who was well spoken of”) and the awkwardness of the passive verb (“was well spoken of”), the relative pronoun at the beginning of 16:2 (“who”) has been translated as a pronoun (“him”) and the construction converted from passive to active at the same time a new sentence was started in the translation. 3 Paul wanted Timothy#tn Grk “this one”; the referent (Timothy) has been specified in the translation for clarity. to accompany him, and he took#tn Grk “and taking him he circumcised him.” The participle λαβών (labwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Paul’s cultural sensitivity showed in his action here. He did not want Timothy’s lack of circumcision to become an issue (1 Cor 9:15-23). him and circumcised#tn The verb περιέτεμεν (perietemen) here may be understood as causative (cf. ExSyn 411-12) if Paul did not personally perform the circumcision. him because of the Jews who were in those places,#tn Or “who lived in the area.” for they all knew that his father was Greek.#tn The anarthrous predicate nominative has been translated as qualitative (“Greek”) rather than indefinite (“a Greek”).sn His father was Greek. Under Jewish law at least as early as the 2nd century, a person was considered Jewish if his or her mother was Jewish. It is not certain whether such a law was in effect in the 1st century, but even if it was, Timothy would not have been accepted as fully Jewish because he was not circumcised. 4 As they went through the towns,#tn Or “cities.” they passed on#tn BDAG 762-63 s.v. παραδίδωμι 3 has “they handed down to them the decisions to observe Ac 16:4.” the decrees that had been decided on by the apostles and elders in Jerusalem#map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. for the Gentile believers#tn Grk “for them”; the referent (Gentile believers) has been specified in the translation for clarity. to obey.#tn Or “observe” or “follow.” 5 So the churches were being strengthened in the faith and were increasing in number every day.#tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.
Paul’s Vision of the Macedonian Man
6 They went through the region of Phrygia#sn Phrygia was a district in central Asia Minor west of Pisidia. and Galatia,#sn Galatia refers to either (1) the region of the old kingdom of Galatia in the central part of Asia Minor (North Galatia), or (2) the Roman province of Galatia, whose principal cities in the 1st century were Ancyra and Pisidian Antioch (South Galatia). The exact extent and meaning of this area has been a subject of considerable controversy in modern NT studies. having been prevented#tn Or “forbidden.” by the Holy Spirit from speaking the message#tn Or “word.” in the province of Asia.#tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia. 7 When they came to#tn BDAG 511 s.v. κατά B.1.b has “to Mysia” here. Mysia,#sn Mysia was a province in northwest Asia Minor. they attempted to go into Bithynia,#sn Bithynia was a province in northern Asia Minor northeast of Mysia. but the Spirit of Jesus did not allow#tn Or “permit”; see BDAG 269 s.v. ἐάω 1. them to do this,#tn The words “do this” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied for stylistic reasons, since English handles ellipses differently than Greek. 8 so they passed through#tn Although the normal meaning for παρέρχομαι (parercomai) is “pass by, go by,” it would be difficult to get to Troas from where Paul and his companions were without going through rather than around Mysia. BDAG 776 s.v. παρέρχομαι 6 list some nonbiblical examples of the meaning “go through, pass through,” and give that meaning for the usage here. Mysia#sn Mysia was a province in northwest Asia Minor. and went down to Troas.#sn Troas was a port city (and surrounding region) on the northwest coast of Asia Minor, near ancient Troy. 9 A#tn Grk “And a.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here. vision appeared to Paul during the night: A Macedonian man was standing there#tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. urging him,#tn The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant and has not been translated. “Come over#tn Grk “Coming over.” The participle διαβάς (diabas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. to Macedonia#sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece. and help us!” 10 After Paul#tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity. saw the vision, we attempted#tn Grk “sought.” immediately to go over to Macedonia,#sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece. concluding that God had called#tn Or “summoned.” us to proclaim the good news to them.
Arrival at Philippi
11 We put out to sea#tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (ἀ. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.” from Troas#sn Troas was a port city (and surrounding region) on the northwest coast of Asia Minor. See v. 8. and sailed a straight course#tn BDAG 406 s.v. εὐθυδρομέω has “of a ship run a straight course” here; L&N 54.3 has “to sail a straight course, sail straight to.” to Samothrace,#sn Samothrace is an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. the next day to Neapolis,#sn Neapolis was a seaport on the southern coast of Macedonia. It was 10 mi (16 km) from Philippi. 12 and from there to Philippi,#map For location see JP1-C1; JP2-C1; JP3-C1; JP4-C1. which is a leading city of that district#tc ‡ Or perhaps, “a city in the first district” (there are a number of textual variants). L&N 1.85 follow the text of UBS4 and NA27 here: “In Ac 16:12…the Greek New Testament published by the United Bible Societies has adopted a conjectural emendation, since the more traditional text, πρώτη τῆς μερίδος, literally ‘first of the district,’ is not only misleading in meaning but does not reflect the historical fact that Philippi was a city in one of the four districts of Macedonia but was not a capital city.” The original text is probably πρώτη τῆς μερίδος (prwth th" merido", “first of that district”) as found in Ì74 א A C Ψ 33vid 36 81 323 945 1175 1891 pc. This has traditionally been translated to give the impression that Philippi was the capital city of the district, but it does not necessarily have to be translated this way. The translation of the article before μερίδος as “that” acknowledges that there were other districts in the province of Macedonia. of Macedonia,#sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece. a Roman colony.#sn A Roman colony was a city whose residents were regarded as Roman citizens, since such cities were originally colonized by citizens of Rome. From Troas to Philippi was 130 mi (208 km). We stayed in this city for some days. 13 On the Sabbath day we went outside the city gate to the side of the river, where we thought there would be a place of prayer, and we sat down#tn Grk “and sitting down we began to speak.” The participle καθίσαντες (kaqisante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. and began to speak#tn The imperfect verb ἐλαλοῦμεν (elaloumen) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect. to the women#sn To the women. Apparently there were not enough Jews present in Philippi to have a synagogue (ten men would have been required to have one). who had assembled there.#tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. 14 A#tn Grk “And a.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here. woman named Lydia, a dealer in purple cloth#tn On the term translated “a dealer in purple cloth” see BDAG 855 s.v. πορφυρόπωλις. from the city of Thyatira,#sn Thyatira was a city in the province of Lydia in Asia Minor. a God-fearing woman, listened to us.#tn The words “to us” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader. The Lord opened her heart to respond#tn Although BDAG 880 s.v. προσέχω 2.b gives the meaning “pay attention to” here, this could be misunderstood by the modern English reader to mean merely listening intently. The following context, however, indicates that Lydia responded positively to Paul’s message, so the verb here was translated “to respond.”sn Lydia is one of several significant women in Acts (see 17:4, 12, 34; 18:20). to what Paul was saying. 15 After she and her household were baptized, she urged us,#tn Grk “urged us, saying.” The participle λέγουσα (legousa) is redundant in English and has not been translated. “If#tn This is a first class condition in Greek, with the statement presented as real or true for the sake of the argument. you consider me to be a believer in the Lord,#tn Or “faithful to the Lord.” BDAG 821 s.v. πίστος 2 states concerning this verse, “Of one who confesses the Christian faith believing or a believer in the Lord, in Christ, in God πιστ. τῷ κυρίῳ Ac 16:15.” L&N 11.17 has “one who is included among the faithful followers of Christ – ‘believer, Christian, follower.’” come and stay in my house.” And she persuaded#tn Although BDAG 759 s.v. παραβιάζομαι has “urge strongly, prevail upon,” in contemporary English “persuade” is a more frequently used synonym for “prevail upon.” us.
Paul and Silas Are Thrown Into Prison
16 Now#tn Grk “Now it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. as we were going to the place of prayer, a slave girl met us who had a spirit that enabled her to foretell the future by supernatural means.#tn Or “who had a spirit of divination”; Grk “who had a spirit of Python.” According to BDAG 896-97 s.v. πύθων, originally Πύθων (Puqwn) was the name of the serpent or dragon that guarded the Delphic oracle. According to Greek mythology, it lived at the foot of Mount Parnassus and was killed by Apollo. From this, the word came to designate a person who was thought to have a spirit of divination. Pagan generals, for example, might consult someone like this. So her presence here suggests a supernatural encounter involving Paul and her “spirit.” W. Foerster, TDNT 6:920, connects the term with ventriloquism but states: “We must assume, however, that for this girl, as for those mentioned by Origen…, the art of ventriloquism was inseparably connected with a (supposed or authentic) gift of soothsaying.” It should also be noted that if the girl in question here were only a ventriloquist, the exorcism performed by Paul in v. 18 would not have been effective. She#tn Grk “who.” Because of the awkwardness in English of having two relative clauses follow one another (“who had a spirit…who brought her owners a great profit”) the relative pronoun here (“who”) has been translated as a pronoun (“she”) and a new sentence begun in the translation. brought her owners#tn Or “masters.” a great profit by fortune-telling.#tn On this term see BDAG 616 s.v. μαντεύομαι. It was used of those who gave oracles. 17 She followed behind Paul and us and kept crying out,#tn Grk “crying out, saying”; the participle λέγουσα (legousa) is redundant in English and has not been translated. The imperfect verb ἔκραζεν (ekrazen) has been translated as a progressive imperfect. “These men are servants#tn Grk “slaves.” See the note on the word “servants” in 2:18. The translation “servants” was used here because in this context there appears to be more emphasis on the activity of Paul and his companions (“proclaiming to you the way of salvation”) than on their status as “slaves of the Most High God.” of the Most High God, who are proclaiming to you the way#tn Or “a way.” The grammar of this phrase is a bit ambiguous. The phrase in Greek is ὁδὸν σωτηρίας (Jodon swthria"). Neither the head noun nor the genitive noun has the article; this is in keeping with Apollonius’ Canon (see ExSyn 239-40). Since both nouns are anarthrous, this construction also fits Apollonius’ Corollary (see ExSyn 250-54); since the genitive noun is abstract it is most naturally qualitative, so the head noun could either be definite or indefinite without being unusual as far as the grammar is concerned. Luke’s usage of ὁδός elsewhere is indecisive as far as this passage is concerned. However, when one looks at the historical background it is clear that (1) the woman is shut up (via exorcism) not because her testimony is false but because of its source (analogous to Jesus’ treatment of demons perhaps), and (b) “the way” is a par excellence description of the new faith throughout Acts. It thus seems that at least in Luke’s presentation “the way of salvation” is the preferred translation. of salvation.”#sn Proclaiming to you the way of salvation. The remarks were an ironic recognition of Paul’s authority, but he did not desire such a witness, possibly for fear of confusion. Her expression the Most High God might have been understood as Zeus by the audience. 18 She continued to do this for many days. But Paul became greatly annoyed,#tn Grk “becoming greatly annoyed.” The participle διαπονηθείς (diaponhqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. The aorist has been translated as an ingressive aorist (entry into a state or condition). See BDAG 235 s.v. διαπονέομαι. and turned#tn Grk “and turning.” The participle ἐπιστρέψας (epistreya") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. and said to the spirit, “I command you in the name of Jesus Christ#tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.” to come out of her!” And it came out of her at once.#tn BDAG 1102-3 s.v. ὥρα 2.c has “at that very time, at once, instantly” for the usage in this verse. 19 But when her owners#tn Or “masters.” saw their hope of profit#tn On this use of ἐργασία (ergasia), see BDAG 390 s.v. 4. It is often the case that destructive practices and commerce are closely tied together. was gone, they seized#tn Grk “was gone, seizing.” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενοι (epilabomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Paul and Silas and dragged#tn On the term ἕλκω ({elkw) see BDAG 318 s.v. 1. them into the marketplace before the authorities. 20 When#tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here. they had brought them#tn Grk “having brought them.” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενοι (epilabomenoi) has been taken temporally. It is also possible in English to translate this participle as a finite verb: “they brought them before the magistrates and said.” before the magistrates, they said, “These men are throwing our city into confusion.#tn BDAG 309 s.v. ἐκταράσσω has “agitate, cause trouble to, throw into confusion” for the meaning of this verb. They are#tn Grk “being Jews, and they are proclaiming.” The participle ὑπάρχοντες (Juparconte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Jews 21 and are advocating#tn Grk “proclaiming,” but in relation to customs, “advocating” is a closer approximation to the meaning. customs that are not lawful for us to accept#tn Or “acknowledge.” or practice,#sn Customs that are not lawful for us to accept or practice. Ironically, the charges are similar to those made against Jesus in Luke 23:2, where Jews argued he was “twisting” their customs. The charge has three elements: (1) a racial element (Jewish); (2) a social element (unlawful); and (3) a traditional element (not their customs). since we are#tn Grk “we being Romans.” The participle οὖσιν (ousin) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. Romans.”
22 The crowd joined the attack#tn L&N 39.50 has “the crowd joined the attack against them” for συνεπέστη (sunepesth) in this verse. against them, and the magistrates tore the clothes#tn Grk “tearing the clothes off them, the magistrates ordered.” The participle περιρήξαντες (perirhxante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Although it may be possible to understand the aorist active participle περιρήξαντες in a causative sense (“the magistrates caused the clothes to be torn off Paul and Silas”) in the mob scene that was taking place, it is also possible that the magistrates themselves actively participated. This act was done to prepare them for a public flogging (2 Cor 11:25; 1 Thess 2:2). off Paul and Silas#tn Grk “off them”; the referents (Paul and Silas) have been specified in the translation for clarity. and ordered them to be beaten with rods.#tn The infinitive ῥαβδίζειν (rJabdizein) means “to beat with rods or sticks” (as opposed to fists or clubs, BDAG 902 s.v. ῥαβδίζω). 23 After they had beaten them severely,#tn Grk “Having inflicted many blows on them.” The participle ἐπιθέντες (epiqente") has been taken temporally. BDAG 384 s.v. ἐπιτίθημι 1.a.β has “inflict blows upon someone” for this expression, but in this context it is simpler to translate in English as “they had beaten them severely.” they threw them into prison and commanded#tn Grk “commanding.” The participle παραγγείλαντες (parangeilante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. the jailer to guard them securely. 24 Receiving such orders, he threw them in the inner cell#tn Or “prison.” and fastened their feet in the stocks.#tn L&N 6.21 has “stocks” for εἰς τὸ ξύλον (ei" to xulon) here, as does BDAG 685 s.v. ξύλον 2.b. However, it is also possible (as mentioned in L&N 18.12) that this does not mean “stocks” but a block of wood (a log or wooden column) in the prison to which prisoners’ feet were chained or tied. Such a possibility is suggested by v. 26, where the “bonds” (“chains”?) of the prisoners loosened.
25 About midnight Paul and Silas were praying#tn Grk “praying, were singing.” The participle προσευχόμενοι (proseucomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. and singing hymns to God,#sn Praying and singing hymns to God. Tertullian said, “The legs feel nothing in the stocks when the heart is in heaven” (To the Martyrs 2; cf. Rom 5:3; Jas 1:2; 1 Pet 5:6). The presence of God means the potential to be free (cf. v. 26). and the rest of#tn The words “the rest of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. the prisoners were listening to them. 26 Suddenly a great earthquake occurred, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken. Immediately all the doors flew open, and the bonds#tn Or perhaps, “chains.” The translation of τὰ δεσμά (ta desma) is to some extent affected by the understanding of ξύλον (xulon, “stocks”) in v. 24. It is possible (as mentioned in L&N 18.12) that this does not mean “stocks” but a block of wood (a log or wooden column) in the prison to which prisoners’ feet were chained or tied. of all the prisoners came loose. 27 When the jailer woke up#tn L&N 23.75 has “had awakened” here. It is more in keeping with contemporary English style, however, to keep the two verbal ideas parallel in terms of tense (“when the jailer woke up and saw”) although logically the second action is subsequent to the first. and saw the doors of the prison standing open,#tn The additional semantic component “standing” is supplied (“standing open”) to convey a stative nuance in English. he drew his sword and was about to kill himself,#sn Was about to kill himself. The jailer’s penalty for failing to guard the prisoners would have been death, so he contemplated saving the leaders the trouble (see Acts 12:19; 27:42). because he assumed#tn Or “thought.” the prisoners had escaped. 28 But Paul called out loudly,#tn Grk “But Paul called out with a loud voice, saying.” The dative phrase μεγάλῃ φωνῇ (megalh fwnh) has been simplified as an English adverb (“loudly”), and the participle λέγων (legwn) has not been translated since it is redundant in English. “Do not harm yourself,#sn Do not harm yourself. Again the irony is that Paul is the agent through whom the jailer is spared. for we are all here!” 29 Calling for lights, the jailer#tn Grk “he”; the referent (the jailer) has been specified in the translation for clarity. rushed in and fell down#tn Or “and prostrated himself.”sn Fell down. The earthquake and the freeing of the prisoners showed that God’s power was present. Such power could only be recognized. The open doors opened the jailer’s heart. trembling at the feet of Paul and Silas. 30 Then he brought them outside#tn Grk “And bringing them outside, he asked.” The participle προαγαγών (proagagwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun by supplying the conjunction “then” to indicate the logical sequence. and asked, “Sirs, what must#tn The Greek term (δεῖ, dei) is used by Luke to represent divine necessity. I do to be saved?” 31 They replied,#tn Grk “said.” “Believe#sn Here the summary term of response is a call to believe. In this context it refers to trusting the sovereign God’s power to deliver, which events had just pictured for the jailer. in the Lord Jesus#tc The majority of mss add Χριστόν (Criston, “Christ”) here (C D E Ψ 1739 Ï sy sa), but the best and earliest witnesses read simply τὸν κύριον ᾿Ιησοῦν (ton kurion Ihsoun, “the Lord Jesus”; Ì74vid א A B 33 81 pc bo). The addition of “Christ” to “Lord Jesus” is an obviously motivated reading. Thus on both external and internal grounds, the shorter reading is strongly preferred. and you will be saved, you and your household.” 32 Then#tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the continuity with the preceding verse. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style does not. they spoke the word of the Lord#sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said. to him, along with all those who were in his house. 33 At#tn Grk “And at.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here. that hour of the night he took them#tn Grk “taking them…he washed.” The participle παραλαβών (paralabwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. and washed their wounds;#tn On this phrase BDAG 603 s.v. λούω 1 gives a literal translation as “by washing he freed them from the effects of the blows.” then#tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the logical sequence. he and all his family#sn All his family. It was often the case in the ancient world that conversion of the father led to the conversion of all those in the household. were baptized right away.#tn Or “immediately.” 34 The jailer#tn Grk “He”; the referent (the jailer) has been specified in the translation for clarity. brought them into his house and set food#tn Grk “placed [food] on the table” (a figurative expression). Since the actual word for food is not specified, it would also be possible to translate “set a meal before them,” but since this is taking place in the middle of the night, the preparations necessary for a full meal would probably not have been made. More likely Paul and Silas were given whatever was on hand that needed little or no preparation. before them, and he rejoiced greatly#tn Or “he was overjoyed.” that he had come to believe#tn The translation “come to believe” reflects more of the resultative nuance of the perfect tense here. in God, together with his entire household.#tn The phrase “together with his entire household” is placed at the end of the English sentence so that it refers to both the rejoicing and the belief. A formal equivalence translation would have “and he rejoiced greatly with his entire household that he had come to believe in God,” but the reference to the entire household being baptized in v. 33 presumes that all in the household believed. 35 At daybreak#tn The translation “day is breaking” for ἡμέρα γίνεται (Jhmera ginetai) in this verse is given by BDAG 436 s.v. ἡμέρα 1.a. the magistrates#tn On the term translated “magistrates,” see BDAG 947-48 s.v. στρατηγός 1. These city leaders were properly called duoviri, but were popularly known as praetors (στρατηγοί, strathgoi). They were the chief officials of Philippi. The text leaves the impression that they came to the decision to release Paul and Silas independently. God was at work everywhere. sent their police officers,#tn On the term ῥαβδοῦχος (rJabdouco") see BDAG 902 s.v. The term was used of the Roman lictor and roughly corresponds to contemporary English “constable, policeman.” saying, “Release those men.” 36 The jailer reported these words to Paul, saying,#tn The word “saying” is not in the Greek text, but is implied; it is necessary in English because the content of what the jailer said to Paul and Silas is not the exact message related to him by the police officers, but is a summary with his own additions. “The magistrates have sent orders#tn The word “orders” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader. to release you. So come out now and go in peace.”#tn Grk “So coming out now go in peace.” The participle ἐξελθόντες (exelqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. 37 But Paul said to the police officers,#tn Grk “to them”; the referent (the police officers) has been specified in the translation for clarity. “They had us beaten in public#tn Grk “Having us beaten in public.” The participle δείραντες (deirante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. without a proper trial#tn Or “in public, uncondemned.” BDAG 35 s.v. ἀκατάκριτος has “uncondemned, without due process” for this usage. – even though we are Roman citizens#tn The participle ὑπάρχοντας (Juparconta") has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle. – and they threw us#tn The word “us” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader. in prison. And now they want to send us away#tn L&N 28.71 has “send us away secretly” for this verse. secretly? Absolutely not! They#tn Grk “But they.” themselves must come and escort us out!”#sn They themselves must come and escort us out! Paul was asking for the injustice he and Silas suffered to be symbolically righted. It was a way of publicly taking their actions off the record and showing the apostles’ innocence, a major public statement. Note the apology given in v. 39. 38 The police officers reported these words to the magistrates. They were frightened when they heard Paul and Silas#tn Grk “heard they”; the referents (Paul and Silas) have been specified in the translation for clarity. were Roman citizens#sn Roman citizens. This fact was disturbing to the officials because due process was a right for a Roman citizen, well established in Roman law. To flog a Roman citizen was considered an abomination. Such punishment was reserved for noncitizens. 39 and came#tn Grk “and coming, they apologized.” The participle ἐλθόντες (elqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. and apologized to them. After#tn Grk “and after.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun. they brought them out, they asked them repeatedly#tn The verb ἐρώτων (erwtwn) has been translated as an iterative imperfect; the English adverb “repeatedly” brings out the iterative force in the translation. to leave the city. 40 When they came out of the prison, they entered Lydia’s house, and when they saw the brothers, they encouraged them and then#tn “Then” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to clarify the logical sequence in the translation. departed.