1 Jehoshaphat passed away#tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.” and was buried with his ancestors#tn Heb “fathers” (also in vv. 10, 12, 19). in the City of David.#sn The phrase the City of David refers here to the fortress of Zion in Jerusalem, not to Bethlehem. See 2 Sam 5:7. His son Jehoram#tn The parallel account in 2 Kgs 8:16-24 has the variant spelling “Jehoram.” replaced him as king.
2 His brothers, Jehoshaphat’s sons, were Azariah, Jechiel, Zechariah, Azariahu, Michael, and Shephatiah. All of these were sons of King Jehoshaphat of Israel.#sn A number of times in 2 Chronicles “Israel” is used instead of the more specific “Judah”; see 2 Chr 12:6; 23:2). In the interest of consistency some translations (e.g., NAB, NRSV) substitute “Judah” for “Israel” here. 3 Their father gave them many presents, including silver, gold, and other precious items, along with fortified cities in Judah. But he gave the kingdom to Jehoram because he was the firstborn.
4 Jehoram took control of his father’s kingdom and became powerful.#tn Heb “and Jehoram arose over the kingdom of his father and strengthened himself.” Then he killed all his brothers,#tn Heb “and he killed all his brothers with the sword.” as well as some of the officials of Israel. 5 Jehoram was thirty-two years old when he became king and he reigned for eight years in Jerusalem.#map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. 6 He followed in the footsteps of the kings of Israel, just as Ahab’s dynasty had done, for he married Ahab’s daughter.#tn Heb “he walked in the way of the kings of Israel, just as the house of Ahab did, for the daughter of Ahab was his wife.” He did evil in the sight of#tn Heb “in the eyes of.” the Lord. 7 But the Lord was unwilling to destroy David’s dynasty#tn Heb “house.” because of the promise#tn Or “covenant.” he had made to give David a perpetual dynasty.#tn Heb “which he made to David, just as he had promised to give him and his sons a lamp all the days.” Here “lamp” is metaphorical, symbolizing the Davidic dynasty.
8 During Jehoram’s#tn Heb “his”; the referent (Jehoram) has been specified in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons. reign Edom freed themselves from Judah’s control and set up their own king.#tn Heb “in his days Edom rebelled from under the hand of Judah and enthroned a king over them.” 9 Jehoram crossed over to Zair with his officers and all his chariots. The Edomites, who had surrounded him, attacked at night and defeated him and his chariot officers.#tc Heb “and he arose at night and defeated Edom, who had surrounded him, and the chariot officers.” The Hebrew text as it stands gives the impression that Jehoram was surrounded and launched a victorious nighttime counterattack. Yet v. 10 goes on to state that the Edomite revolt was successful. The translation above assumes an emendation of the Hebrew text. Adding a third masculine singular pronominal suffix to the accusative sign before Edom (reading אֹתוֹ [’oto, “him”] instead of just אֶת [’et]) and taking Edom as the subject of verbs allows one to translate the verse in a way that is more consistent with the context, which depicts an Israelite defeat, not victory. See also 2 Kgs 8:21. 10 So Edom has remained free from Judah’s control to this very day.#tn Heb “and Edom rebelled from under the hand of Judah until this day.” At that same time Libnah also rebelled and freed themselves from Judah’s control#tn Or “from Jehoram’s control”; Heb “from under his hand.” The pronominal suffix may refer to Judah in general or, more specifically, to Jehoram. because Jehoram#tn Heb “he.” This pronoun could refer to Judah, but the context focuses on Jehoram’s misdeeds. See especially v. 11. rejected the Lord God of his ancestors. 11 He also built high places on the hills of Judah; he encouraged the residents of Jerusalem to be unfaithful to the Lord#tn Heb “and he caused the residents of Jerusalem to commit adultery.” In this context spiritual unfaithfulness to the Lord is in view rather than physical adultery. and led Judah away from the Lord.#tn Heb “and drove Judah away.”
12 Jehoram#tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jehoram) has been specified in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons. received this letter from Elijah the prophet: “This is what the Lord God of your ancestor David says: ‘You#tn Heb “Because you…” In the Hebrew text this lengthy sentence is completed in vv. 14-15. Because of its length and complexity (and the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences), the translation has divided it up into several English sentences. have not followed in the footsteps#tn Heb “walked in the ways.” of your father Jehoshaphat and of#tn Heb “in the ways of.” King Asa of Judah, 13 but have instead followed in the footsteps of the kings of Israel. You encouraged the people of Judah and the residents of Jerusalem to be unfaithful to the Lord, just as the family of Ahab does in Israel.#tn Heb “and you walked in the way of the kings of Israel and caused Judah and the residents of Jerusalem to commit adultery, like the house of Ahab causes to commit adultery.” You also killed your brothers, members of your father’s family,#tn Heb “the house of your father.” who were better than you. 14 So look, the Lord is about to severely afflict#tn Heb “to strike with a great striking.” your people, your sons, your wives, and all you own. 15 And you will get a serious, chronic intestinal disease which will cause your intestines to come out.”#tn Heb “and you [will have] a serious illness, an illness of the intestines until your intestines come out because of the illness days upon days.”
16 The Lord stirred up against Jehoram the Philistines#tn Heb “the spirit of the Philistines.” and the Arabs who lived beside the Cushites. 17 They attacked Judah and swept through it.#tn Heb “broke it up.” They carried off everything they found in the royal palace,#tn Heb “all the property which was found in the house of the king.” including his sons and wives. None of his sons was left, except for his youngest, Ahaziah. 18 After all this happened, the Lord afflicted him with an incurable intestinal disease.#tn Heb “in his intestines with an illness [for which] there was no healer.” 19 After about two years his intestines came out because of the disease, so that he died a very painful death.#tn Heb “and it was to days from days, and about the time of the going out of the end for the days, two, his intestines came out with his illness and he died in severe illness.” His people did not make a bonfire to honor him, as they had done for his ancestors.#tn Heb “and his people did not make for him a fire, like the fire of his fathers.”
20 Jehoram was thirty-two years old when he became king and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem. No one regretted his death;#tn Heb “and he went without desire.” he was buried in the City of David,#sn The phrase the City of David refers here to the fortress of Zion in Jerusalem, not to Bethlehem. See 2 Sam 5:7. but not in the royal tombs.